A systematic rethinking of the most valuable experience of an outstanding teacher, a deep understanding of the reasons for his success, based on the latest knowledge in system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan, will give A.S. Makarenko's method a second life, and all of us - hope that the future will take place.
My most vivid recollection from the course on pedagogy is a lecture on the methodology of Anton Semyonovich Makarenko. I remember that it struck me how, in a short time, one teacher was able to bring up worthy citizens of the Soviet state from the street children who had been recorded by society as garbage.
Today the principle prevails in Russian education: the rescue of drowning people is the work of the drowning themselves. No one removed the responsibility from teachers for their pupils, however, if they are unsuccessful in life, the parents, society as a whole are blamed for deviant behavior, and education has nothing to do with it. "If their parents don't need children, then who needs them?" The upbringing component of the school pedagogical process is practically removed. Progress is the main indicator of the effectiveness of both an individual teacher and the school as a whole. Personal growth, the success of an individual, the identification and promotion of talented children, an individual approach to each student - all these criteria for evaluating the school's work clearly reflect the values of our modern skin society, a consumer society.
And how to educate students if, on the one hand, there is a socially disadvantaged family, and on the other hand, there is an unhealthy moral situation in the country? Powerless teachers, new lost generations, a spiritless society - a vicious circle appears, which seems impossible to break. And more and more often they try to answer one of the eternal Russian questions: who is to blame, while it is more urgent to understand: what to do?
What to do with uncontrollable, "indifferent" youth, with socially unadapted orphanages (according to statistics, only 10% of them are successful in independent life), with thousands of juvenile criminals living according to the vicious scenario of "stole, drank - to prison"? Take someone else's experience as a carbon copy, or still pay attention to the achievements of domestic teachers, undeservedly devoted to oblivion?
The experience of AS Makarenko is perceived, for the most part, as a part of educational material on the history of pedagogy, the fate of which is “to pass on the exam and forget”. But didn't we throw out the child himself, along with the Makarenko system? Why do we now need the communes and republics of Skid? Let's try to figure it out systematically.
Anton Semyonovich Makarenko, by the decision of UNESCO in 1988, was included in the list of four outstanding teachers of the world who defined pedagogical thinking in the twentieth century, along with John Dewey, Georg Kerschensteiner, Maria Montessori. Despite the fierce controversy surrounding the personality of Anton Semyonovich, his pedagogical experience has been widely applied and applied abroad.
By their nature, anal-visual people are ideal educators. Strict, demanding, well-read, fair, honest, they are professionals in their field. Personal involvement in a common cause, sincere interest in the fate of children, disinterested love won the hearts of even notorious juvenile hooligans.
Makarenko's own assessment of his teaching activity is indicative: “My Gorky people have also grown up, scattered all over the Soviet world, it is now difficult for me to collect them even in my imagination. You cannot catch the engineer Zadorov, buried in one of the grandiose construction projects of Turkmenistan, you cannot call the doctor of the Special Far Eastern Vershnev or the doctor in Yaroslavl Burun on a date. Even Nisinov and Zoren, for which the boys already flew away from me, fluttering their wings, only their wings are now not the same, not the tender wings of my pedagogical sympathy, but the steel wings of Soviet airplanes.
And Osadchiy is a technologist, and Mishka Ovcharenko is a driver, and a meliorator beyond the Caspian Sea Oleg Ognev and a teacher Marusya Levchenko, and a carriage driver Soroka, and an installer Volokhov, and a locksmith Koryto, and a foreman of MTS Fedorenko, and party leaders - Alyoshka Volkov, Denis Kudlatiy and Volkov Zhorka, and with a real Bolshevik character, is still a sensitive Mark Scheingauz, and many, many others."
In addition, it should be noted that the epithet “ideal teacher” was in harmony with such characteristics of Anton Makarenko as a loyal friend, an excellent stepfather, a reliable husband, a decent person. This is not at all surprising for a developed and realized personality with an anal-visual ligament of vectors.
After the overthrow of the monarchy in Russia, the Civil War in the country of the Soviets, in addition to the urgent task of restoring the economy, the task was to educate worthy citizens of a socialist state, to create a prosperous society without crime and violence.
The breakdown of any system is the splitting of the whole (collective) into individual particulars. The fall of the tsarist regime led to the fragmentation of Russian society into variegated pieces, that is, to the loss of community, the integrity of the pack. Everything mixed into chaos, where each individually survived as best he could. One of these splinters was unwanted homeless children who survived on their own or huddled in flocks with archetypal ranking inside.
The powerful pressure of the landscape pushed even children from previously quite prosperous families into the archetype, they became thieves. It was only possible to restructure the fragments of the tsarist regime into a new whole on the basis of a powerful general idea, and this idea was in the air: we are not slaves, we are not slaves, from each according to his ability, to each according to his work. In pedagogy, only A.S. Makarenko managed to do this with his incredible power of vision, which alone could shift an abstract sound idea into concrete visual series of methodological recommendations and convincing practice.
Even while studying at the teacher's institute, Makarenko researched a very sensitive topic - the crisis of modern pedagogy, on which he successfully defended his thesis. And he was eager to contribute to changing the situation for the better.
He liked the order of the Poltava Gubnarobraz to organize a labor colony for juvenile offenders in 1920. For eight years Anton Semyonovich headed this colony, later it was named after Maxim Gorky. Since 1927, Makarenko has become one of the leaders of the Felix Dzerzhinsky Children's Labor Commune and has combined two positions for six months. However, after sharp criticism of the pedagogical system developed by him by Nadezhda Krupskaya, he was fired from the colony. M. Gorky, and then from the labor commune.
Since 1935, Makarenko worked in the central apparatus of the NKVD of the Ukrainian SSR as an assistant to the head of the department of labor colonies, after which he headed the pedagogical part of labor colony No. 5.
In the last years of his life, Anton Semenovich was mainly engaged in journalism, literary activity, shared his experience with teachers, and spoke to readers. At the beginning of 1939, Makarenko was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, and on April 1, the outstanding teacher died suddenly.
Makarenko's pedagogical system, its high achievements, efficiency of application, despite zealous critics and ill-wishers, nominated Anton Semyonovich among the famous figures of not only Soviet, but also world pedagogy.
Makarenko's pedagogical heritage can be conditionally divided into two components: pedagogy for parents and pedagogy for teachers.
So, in the "Book for Parents" Anton Semyonovich gives simple advice to adults about raising children. Family education is the basis for the formation of a child's personality, while Makarenko emphasized the importance of a complete family as the first strong team, where the parents (or one of them) are the authority for the baby.
He identified several types of parental authority:
1. The authority of suppression. The adult dominates children, who usually become weak-willed, downtrodden. Most often, fathers adhere to this most terrible kind of authority.
2. The authority of pedantry. Parents overprotect the child, also turning him often into an amorphous, lack of initiative, dependent, weak-willed creature.
3. The authority of distance. Parents devote little time to their children, keep them at a distance from themselves, taking care of their own life to a greater extent, leaving children to themselves. "Upbringing always happens, even when you are not at home."
4. The authority of love. False authority, the essence of which is that parents make concessions to their children, allow them to twist ropes out of themselves, justifying their behavior with immense love for them, if only the children obey them.
5. The authority of kindness. Children's obedience is organized through the love of the child, the kindness of the parents.
Makarenko recommended that adults adhere to the latter type of parental authority, as well as pay great attention to the socialization of the child, his communication with peers, apply labor in education, observe the principles of a healthy, successful team in family life, urged to remember that “you cannot teach a person to be happy, but you can educate him so that he was happy."
Intuitively, A.S. Makarenko formulated the principles, which were subsequently confirmed by systemic studies in the field of the mental unconscious: the task of parents is to develop in every way the vector properties of the child so that he reaches the level of an adequate response to the requirements of adult life and has every reason for the happiest realization of himself in society.
Makarenko was well aware of the huge responsibility and important role that teachers play in society. “Forty forty-ruble teachers can lead to complete decomposition not only of a group of homeless children, but also of any group,” therefore he advocated clear pedagogical methods that can be easily introduced, effectively prolonged anywhere, with any children, with various material and technical conditions. and good results will remain unchanged. He managed to develop just such a pedagogical system. Here are its main points:
1. For the re-education of juvenile criminals, it is necessary to use general educational methods, useful productive labor, and not a prison regime with fences and guards. “My work with street children was by no means a special work with street children. First, as a working hypothesis, from the first days of my work with homeless children, I established that no special methods should be used in relation to homeless people."
2. The relationship "teacher - pupil" should be built on trust, love, respect. "As many demands as possible on a person and as much respect as possible."
3. A differentiated approach to each child, it is impossible to demand from all children the same development of their abilities, to adjust them to the "norm". “If there is little ability, then demanding excellent studies is not only useless, but also criminal. You cannot force to study well. This can lead to tragic consequences."
At the same time, we must strive to ensure that each pupil finds a place for himself in the educational process, so that he has favorite subjects, a favorite thing. It is also important to understand that “the most talented in a month will hate you for making them do what they cannot do,” so you need to know the characteristics of a particular child.
4. Teachers should be creative, not afraid to deviate from generally accepted patterns, prevailing stereotypes, and act in the interests of children. "To give up risk means to give up creativity."
5. The teacher's words should be supported by deeds. "Verbal education without accompanying gymnastics of behavior is the most criminal sabotage."
6. The teacher needs to win the love, trust and respect of his students, then the positive results of re-education and upbringing of children will not be long in coming.
“You can be dry with them to the last degree, demanding to the point of pickiness, you may not notice them … but if you shine with work, knowledge, luck, then calmly - do not look back: they are on your side … And vice versa, no matter how you were affectionate, entertaining in conversation, kind and friendly … if your business is accompanied by failures and failures, if at every step it is clear that you do not know your business … you will never deserve anything but contempt."
The main thing is the team
Makarenko made a special contribution to the development of the principles of organizing the children's collective, which allow combining the mechanism of personal stimulation and social benefit. First of all, this is the principle of responsibility of each and every one individually. No one in the team was left without work, each had his own area of responsibility.
For example, simple cleaning turned into a turn of responsibility of pupils for a bucket, a rag, cleanliness of the room, that is, a kind of technological process. “Responsibility for the bucket and the rag is for me the same lathe, albeit the last one in a row, but on it fasteners are turned for the most important human attribute: a sense of responsibility. Without this attribute, there can be no communist person, there will be “shortage”.
In addition, Makarenko did not conduct "stupid, cruel" experiments on children, but provided the team with everything that was needed for life and work. The joint activities of adults and children, their understanding of a common task that is significant for all allowed to create an atmosphere of trust.
- And who is your boss? Maybe Makarenko? someone asked and hid in the crowd. Zhorka smiled broadly: - What a fool! We trust Anton Semyonovich, because he is ours, and we act together.
It should be noted that Anton Semyonovich pinned all his hopes on the collective as a whole, teaching each pupil to live in the interests of the collective.
“I demanded the education of a hardened, strong person who could do both unpleasant work and boring work, if it is caused by the interests of the collective. As a result, I defended the line of creating a strong, if necessary, and stern, inspired team."
Embodying the global idea of creating a whole from parts, A.S. Makarenko, in a systemic pack (collective), taught the pupils the main lesson - receiving for the sake of giving to the pack is a hundred times more important and more pleasant than receiving for the sake of receiving, that is, for oneself. He overcame the dislike of the pupils for each other in different ways, but at the heart of all Makarenko's methodological techniques was visual love for a person in the complete absence of fear. It is the absence of fear in vision, brought to the level of absolute bestowal, that is capable of attracting other people, especially less developed people, which at first were the homeless archetypal animals - the pupils of Anton Semyonovich. Makarenko was not a urethral leader by nature, but for hundreds of his students he became an indisputable authority, a role model, flesh of the flesh of his flock.
The pupils of Makarenko recall that there was no condemnation in their team, the problems that arose were solved on the spot, the goals were clear and transparent for everyone. The teacher himself wrote: “We all easily put up with so many shortcomings, denied ourselves unnecessary entertainment, in the best suit, in food, giving every free penny for the pigs, for seeds, for a new reaping machine. We treated our small sacrifices in the restoration work so kindly and calmly, with such joyful confidence that I allowed myself a direct buffoonery at a general meeting when one of the young people raised the question: it was time to sew new pants. I said: - Here we finish the second colony, get rich, then we will sew everything: the colonists will have velvet shirts with a silver belt, girls will have silk dresses and patent leather shoes, each detachment will have its own car and, in addition,a bicycle for each colonist. And the whole colony will be planted with thousands of rose bushes. See? In the meantime, let's buy a good Simmental cow with these three hundred rubles. The colonists laughed heartily, and after that calico patches on their trousers and oiled gray "cheps" seemed not so poor for them."
A clear management structure, continuous training and team spirit were of great importance in the well-coordinated work of the team. “The mechanics and style of our relationship are instinctively assimilated by every commune. Thanks to this, we manage to avoid any kind of split in the team, hostility, discontent, envy and gossip. And all the wisdom of these relations, in the eyes of the Communards, is concentrated in the variability of the composition of the council of commanders, which has already been visited by half of the Communards and the rest will certainly visit. The Council of Commanders has always been at the height of the situation, despite its variable composition. The tradition and experience of the older generations who have already left the commune are of great importance here. Of the peculiarities of the work of the council, it is necessary to point out one, the most important: despite all the disagreements in the council of commanders, since the decree was issued and announced in the order,no one can think of not fulfilling it."
So, Makarenko's pedagogical system is based on two pillars - the skillful organization of the children's team and the priority of useful productive work.
The whole truth about the Makarenko technique
Colony them. M. Gorky, as well as the commune them. F. Dzerzhinsky was often visited by foreign delegations, groups of Soviet workers and officials, and teachers. And they all asked the same question: "So these are the street children?"
Washed, well-groomed, intelligent, polite communards, who know how to behave with dignity, as well as cleanliness, order, business atmosphere in the workshops contradicted existing ideas about street children. Hence, the sources of harsh criticism of Makarenko's method are understandable: some refused to believe what was written (heard from eyewitnesses), “it cannot be like that,” “this only happens in fairy tales,” others attributed the teacher to assault, called his pedagogy “prison”, that "the Makarenko system is not a Soviet system."
Moreover, few people liked Makarenko's statements that “from the top of the“Olympic”offices, they do not distinguish any details and parts of work. From there you can see only the endless sea of a faceless childhood, and in the office itself there is a model of an abstract child, made of the lightest materials: ideas, printed paper, Manilov's dreams … "Olympians" despise technology. Thanks to their domination, pedagogical and technical thought, especially in the matter of our own upbringing, has long since decayed in our pedagogical universities. In all our Soviet life, there is no more miserable technical condition than in the area of education. And therefore, educational work is a handicraft business, and of the handicraft industries it is the most backward."
“The result of reading pedagogical books was the confidence that in my hands there is no science and there is no theory, that the theory must be extracted from the whole sum of real phenomena taking place before my eyes. At first I didn't even understand, but simply saw that I needed not book formulas, which I still could not tie to the case, but immediate analysis and immediate action. We were imperiously surrounded by a chaos of little things, a whole sea of the most elementary requirements of common sense, each of which was capable of smashing all our wise pedagogical science to smithereens."
What was it like reading to the aces of pedagogy, venerable professors, high-ranking officials working in the field of education? They have published so many papers, published books, monographs, dissertations, and here it is …
Backward pedagogy that does not work in practice, for the most part meaningless pedagogical education. It is clear that the bulk of the existing Soviet pedagogical elite tried in every possible way to prevent the spread of ideas, Makarenko's experience, so as not to change, in order to justify their existence. And Anton Semyonovich has already asked his logical questions, publishing not in pedagogical publishing houses, but in literary works: “Our pedagogical production has never been built according to technological logic, but always according to the logic of moral preaching. This is especially noticeable in the field of our own upbringing … Why in technical universities we study the resistance of materials, and in pedagogical universities we do not study the resistance of the individual when they begin to educate it?
Makarenko successfully overcame "personality resistance" by deep understanding of the personal characteristics of his pupils, which gave him the opportunity to develop them in accordance with these characteristics, and not in spite of them, not through resistance, but along the mental vector: from predestination, through development, to the realization of personal properties everyone for the good of all.
At the same time, there were people who admired Makarenko's activities and adopted his experience, helped him in the dissemination of his method.
Today in Russia the problem of the quality of education for both schoolchildren and teachers is more acute than ever. Makarenko's methodology, based on the principles of upbringing in a team, where everyone works for the good of the whole, is more relevant than ever.
The breakdown of social foundations in the 1990s led our society to once again splitting the whole into a chaos of individual, competing with each other particles. The only difference from the revolutionary events of a century ago is that there was no idea that would help unite the world into a single whole. The time for big ideas is over. The education system, let go by itself, lost its structure and began to passively reflect the processes taking place in society. An individual approach to teaching children flourished, education was simply forgotten.
A myriad of mostly hastily written textbooks, "systems" and "methods", which were tested in accordance with the laws of archetypal skin accumulation and anal nepotism, flooded the market, entangling teachers who were not used to exercising freedom of choice. Those who survived the cataclysm of the restructuring of the education system chose from the available the most accessible, that is, far from the best. And it was impossible to choose the best because there was none.
The emphasis on individuality, uniqueness and personal orientation in the face of the debris of a destructed "system" of education has led to the complete annihilation of education as a concept. Research shows that 98% of 1,600 children 3-5 years old show creative thinking. After five years of schooling, the rate of creativity drops by 70%, and out of 200,000 people over 25, only 2% think outside the box! Paradox: the emphasis on a personal approach in teaching gives a homogeneous mass of standard consumers without a divine spark in their heads. What is the reason?
During their studies at school, children completely forget how to interact with each other at the level of solving a common problem. Requirements to individualize the approach to children in every possible way are perceived locally as "nurturing" - individual consultations, assignments, projects. Tutoring from the first grade does not surprise anyone. But help to the lagging behind is practically absent as a socially useful load for good and excellent students. The patronage of the senior classes on the younger ones is far in the past. Responsibility for the other is not inculcated or developed in school. We wolf out the collectivism of our children. Having only strict punitive control from above, carried out by teachers or student leaders, the child gets used to working exclusively for himself, for his personal success, without giving anything to the team, to the flock, because it is unprofitable.
Developing his personal success and the resulting conceit, the student can no longer "sink" to such a mundane thing as cleaning the classroom. The practice of collecting money to pay for cleaning work is widespread; parents sincerely believe that they are doing good for the children. The lesson of labor is perceived as a complete anachronism. The desire for sky-high heights of personal independence and financial well-being in the Russian mentality is in no way associated with physical labor, even as a starting point for further climbing to the heights. “All or nothing,” says our urethral mentality, implying, of course, everything and by any means for its blood.
In the conditions of Western civilization, the upbringing of individuals bears its collective fruit only because above the skin base of individual entrepreneurship and competition is the superstructure of the law that unites competing subjects into a “unity of dissimilar” - before the law they are all equal. In our conditions of the urethral-muscular mentality, the skin law is not taken for granted and does not work as it should, and we have not yet matured to another law in the psychic, therefore, at this stage, we have no unifying factor, except for the systemic knowledge of the structure and meaning of the pack. can.
You can, of course, try to invent new systems of education and upbringing, but it would be more logical to use the existing knowledge, already tested once on our landscape in the conditions of "collecting stones" - by the method of A. S. Makarenko, systemically rethinking it and adapting it to modern conditions not in damage to the essence.
Given the unique Russian urethral-muscular mentality, it is useless to refer to Western pedagogical experience. Tested on our soil, it does not give the same results as in Western Europe or America.
In this sense, Makarenko's pedagogical system is ideal for us. And it is the most correct. Trying to encourage our children to “achieve personal goals” is to force them into archetypal skin. The main idea of Makarenko is the upbringing of a personality through a team - an accurate hit for the development of vector properties of children in conditions of the urethral-muscular mentality. Upbringing with a focus on the natural inclinations of a child, coupled with collective activities, where children learn to take responsibility not only for themselves, but also for the good of the whole group, makes them healthy members of society.
Having entered adulthood, such children, firstly, will be completely socially adapted, i.e. That is, they are taught to live and interact in a team, and secondly, they will be able to get great pleasure from life, because they will work in their places, since adults contributed to the development of innate inclinations, and did not mold what they themselves wanted from the child. And thirdly, and this is the most important thing, such children, upon entering adulthood, will be oriented not only towards receiving (everyone owes me, and I owe no one - the position of modern not only adolescents, but also adults), but also towards giving - to have a mature sense of responsibility towards society.
For 13 years of his pedagogical work with street children, Makarenko considered his most significant invention to be the system of consolidated detachments, which were created to fulfill a specific goal, where everyone could try himself as a commander. “It was for this that our colony was distinguished by 1926 by its striking ability to tune in and reorganize for any task, and to fulfill the individual details of this task there was always an abundance of cadres of capable and proactive organizers, managers, people on whom one could rely.”
This invention cannot be overestimated in terms of the correct ranking in the group and the development of urethral adolescents, which are often suppressed in other educational systems. Free and wayward, they rarely appeal to anal educators. However, in the Makarenko system, their vector properties were fully developed. To be a leader in your flock, to be responsible for your people is the best development for a urethral child.
Makarenko wrote: “To educate a person means to educate in him promising paths along which his tomorrow's joy is located. You can write a whole methodology for this important work. It consists in organizing new perspectives, in using existing ones, in the gradual substitution of more valuable ones. You can start with a good lunch, and with a trip to the circus, and with cleaning the pond, but you must always revitalize and gradually expand the prospects of the whole team."
It is also impossible to overestimate Makarenko's accuracy here. The most important thing in raising children is not to feed them, but to teach them to eat on their own. Let them socialize so that they can do it without any problems in the future as adults. Let them develop their innate properties so that they can make the most of them in the future. And here each child must be approached from his side - depending on his vector features.
Discipline in the team was also maintained in an exceptionally correct way - through social shame, fear of public condemnation. "Without any decrees, without protocols and almost without speeches, solely due to their conscientiousness and solicitation." The principles of the children's collective existence, developed by Makarenko, are successful precisely because they take into account the peculiarities of our mentality. From his close-knit team, where “one for all and all for one”, a lot of wonderful people, specialists, highly professional workers came out.
In love with his children, a highly professional teacher, Makarenko gave them the best that a teacher can give - the opportunity to become themselves and apply themselves for the good of society, which guaranteed them a good future.
By fostering collectivism in children and a sense of responsibility of everyone for everyone, and everyone for everyone, we will be able to assemble our society, which has fallen apart into archetypal fragments, for a better future, where such concepts as “homeless”, “orphanage”, “swindler” or “bribe taker” kept in dusty dictionaries under the heading "for official use".
It will not be possible to apply the method of A.S. Makarenko in its pure form in our time - the time has changed, our children have also changed. A systematic rethinking of the most valuable experience of an outstanding teacher, a deep understanding of the reasons for his success, based on the latest knowledge in system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan, will give A.S. Makarenko's method a second life, and all of us - hope that the future will take place.