Trotsky. Soul of the revolution
Urethral individuals are natural leaders, the raison d'être of which is concentrated on the preservation and advancement of the people they lead into the future. The people, in turn, have a willingness to follow these leaders, to give their lives for the powerful sound idea of "equality and brotherhood" they brought …
"… the revolution is public, epic, catastrophic …"
L. D. Trotsky. From an article on Yesenin's death.
February 23 marks the 95th anniversary of the creation of the Red Army by Lev Davidovich Trotsky.
There is no need to judge history. This is useless work. Just how to evaluate from a modern standpoint the actions of the participants in the October Revolution and their subsequent actions. Every person, not excluding historical figures of the scale of Trotsky, the creator of the Red Army, manifests himself in accordance with the characteristics of his natural vectors.
So, some combinations of vectors in potential give their carriers a charge of such power that under certain conditions they are able to make grandiose changes in the world historical process, which will affect the life of more than one generation and not in one single country, but will be carried over distances, exploding the musty everyday world of peoples on all continents.
The urethral-sound idea of freedom, equality and brotherhood has no boundaries, and the "ghost of communism roamed about Europe" until he found his refuge, appearing "in Holy Russia, in a horse-drawn and haunted …" This idea was brought by the leaders of the Bolsheviks - Lenin and Trotsky. Trotsky's polymorph possessed an extensive set of vectors that he received from birth, but above all he is an urethral sound specialist with orality. Such a bundle of urethrality and good "top" is extremely rare. Its owner is able to change the course of history, make colossal changes in it, and lead the masses.
The urethral person has inner freedom - he is above any limitation in the fact of his birth. Carrying out this state and spreading it to the whole flock is expressed in the priority of the external over the internal, the general over the particular. The acceptance of these values is the basis of the Russian mentality. Urethral individuals are natural leaders, the very meaning of their existence is concentrated on the preservation and advancement of the people they lead into the future.
The people, in turn, have a willingness to follow the urethral leaders, to give their lives for the powerful sound idea they brought, for example, “equality and brotherhood”, to rise “to the bloody, holy and rightful battle” just after hearing Trotsky's appeals.
Great October Socialist Expansion
The leaders of the revolution understood that the coup d'état, successfully and almost bloodlessly carried out in the Russian capital in October 1917, could drown if it did not reach the most remote outskirts of the vast Russian expanses. Supported by the urban poor and the working class, they felt it necessary to consolidate and sustain the gains of the revolution.
The Russian Empire, split during the Civil War, needs a new union. In 1919, Trotsky is the only one who understands this. He makes a clear, convincing speech about the need to reunite the Russian outskirts: "The people of the Latvian … Lithuanian … Belarusian … want a brotherly close union … the same will happen tomorrow with Estonia, the Caucasus, Siberia."
Trotsky's foresight consisted in the proposal to create a Fraternal Union of Soviet Republics "without enmity, struggle and quarrels between one nation and another nation." This union, Lev Davidovich argued, is capable of providing support to Red Bavaria, from which a revolution could flare up in the rest of Germany, and as a result, "a single Soviet republic of all peoples will be created throughout the world!"
Trotsky had no "speechwriters". He wrote his speeches himself with inspiration and vividness, putting into them all the urethral passion of the four-dimensional libido, all the irrepressible temperament and ardor of the soul, all the devotion of the revolutionary heart, all the crazy faith in his sonic idea of a world revolution.
The promotion of the urethral revolutionary idea simultaneously with its physical implantation according to the principle: “He who is not with us is against us” was the only possible form of ensuring the victory of the Bolsheviks throughout Russia. Here it was not about the survival of a handful of participants in the coup, but about a fundamental change in the life of the bulk of the country's population - workers and peasants.
Speech expression, a decisive, short slogan understandable even to an illiterate masses, ecstasy and conviction in the correctness of the chosen idea were expressed in Trotsky by the properties of his oral-urethral ligament of vectors, making him a high-class "tribune-ringleader." People with a well-developed oral vector have “unique verbal intelligence” and the ability to grasp a thought on the go, easily and convincingly expressing it in words. The word oral is capable of destroying any obstacle and rallying millions.
Lunacharsky called Trotsky almost the greatest orator of his time. He could speak with inspiration for 2-3 hours in front of a completely silent, standing on its feet and fascinatedly listening to his political speeches. If any oralist "is capable of turning any thought, any idea into an object for universal ridicule," then in the case of Trotsky the idea of revolution was turned by him into an object of universal worship.
The slogans invented by the outstanding orator were scattered on all fronts, remembered at rallies, spread further by the heralds of the Revolution: “No peace, no war, but dissolve the army”, “Not a single inch of land without a fight! Not a single grain of national property to the enemy!"
“Our army is still weak,” Trotsky explained, and immediately made an appeal:
"Proletarians - on horseback!"
1918 year. The young Soviet Republic is in the ring of the Entente and the White Guard movements. The country lacks weapons, soldiers, and military professionals. The Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army has long been "created" on paper by decree signed by Lenin. The Bolsheviks counted on the high consciousness of the masses. For a meager ration and a cash reward of 15 rubles. only unemployed volunteers are sluggishly enrolled in it per day.
At the same time, the Red Terror was declared in Russia. Former tsarist officers are shot daily. Having just arrived from Petrograd to Moscow, Trotsky is appointed by Lenin as People's Commissar for Military Affairs, capable of solving the difficulties of creating a regular army. The newly appointed People's Commissar makes an unexpected decision - to hold an amnesty and win over the former Tsarist officers.
The stake was right: "The war must be led by professionals." Most of the junior officers, on whom the emphasis was placed, were from villages and from factory outskirts, who rose to the service "for the tsar and the Fatherland" from ordinary soldiers to non-commissioned officers, having completed a good school in the tsarist army. They spoke the same language with the Red Army men, laughed at the same jokes, sang the same songs. They were their own among their own, the same as themselves, rising only a few steps, thanks to personal courage and courage, were awarded the St. George's crosses. Their authority was undeniable.
Among such Georgievsky cavaliers, drafted by non-commissioned officers to the units of the Red Army, were Vasily Chapaev, Georgy Zhukov, Semyon Budyonny, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Rodion Malinovsky … future strategists and marshals of the Soviet Union.
This action was successful. For Trotsky, a completely non-military man, with the natural talent of an urethral leader in a cloud of ideological and sound halo, supported by a convincing oral word, the entire muscular army and urethral officers went without hesitation, laying the foundation for the creation of the Red Army, which later became the main forge of Soviet military personnel.
The decision to fill the vacancies with old-regime military specialists meets with serious resistance among some members of the Politburo. They are convinced that the former tsarist officers, as enemies and class alien elements, must be abandoned, relying only on the revolutionary army. Stalin was of the same opinion. Disagreement on this issue became one of the stumbling blocks in subsequent relations between the two Bolsheviks.
Trotsky is accused of forming barriers, the introduction of decimation - the execution of every tenth escaped from the battlefield, the taking of military families as hostages, of undeserved cruelty and repression, not realizing that the urethral leader, which was Lev Davidovich, does not accept restrictions by law or morality if it's about the survival of the pack.
The introduction of tough measures to maintain order and discipline in the newly created Red Army was a necessary and only true condition in order to defend the cause of the Revolution and avoid the territorial fragmentation of the state, not to allow Russia to be pulled apart from all sides by enemies. Violent reprisals against traitors, saboteurs, deserters are also a kind of leaving "behind the flags" of the principles of universal morality and peacetime ethics. In a war, the urethral leader dictates his own rules: everything that interferes or resists the survival of the majority is subject to destruction.
For each former tsarist officer who went over to the side of the Reds, the vigilant control of one political commissar in three persons was established - an ideologist and propagandist for the soldiers, an overseer for the commander, an informant for the Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council. The most striking example in the history of the Civil War is the "duet" of Vasily Ivanovich Chapaev and his political instructor Dmitry Furmanov.
Undoubtedly, complete victory on the fronts of the Civil War and the preservation of the integrity of the newly created state are Trotsky's merit. Almost immediately after his appointment, he began to widely apply various moral and material methods of encouraging soldiers and commanders. A new Red Army paraphernalia, a system of awards, and revolutionary banners of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee are being introduced. A set of leather uniforms intended for technical aviation troops or red cavalry trousers, no matter how funny it sounds today, were preferable to any order. In the absence of a uniform uniform, they were awarded to especially distinguished soldiers and commanders.
Even the text of the Military Oath, written by Trotsky himself 95 years ago, with some amendments still exists today. Today's soldiers swear allegiance to their Motherland - the Russian Federation according to it.
Any urethral leader understands well the psychology of the muscle army, its lack. Trotsky takes an active part in the life of the Red Army, does not leave it at the front. His armored train, equipped with the most modern means of communication - telegraph and radio - cuts through the expanses of Russia, finding itself everywhere where the railway is laid. Trotsky becomes the most famous and popular among the commanders and soldiers. The presence of the people's commissar-leader additionally raises the morale of the muscular army, making it invincible.
We on the woe to all bourgeoisie will fan the world fire
The name of Trotsky is inextricably linked with the idea of permanent revolution, which must "… be made continuous until all more or less possessing classes are removed from domination, until the proletariat conquers state power." The October Revolution of 1917 in Russia, according to Trotsky, could not be completed, but was only the first step on the way to the world socialist revolution.
The proletariat represented only an insignificant part of the entire population of Russia, and the predominance of "a huge mass of petty-bourgeois peasantry" can lead to "the restoration of capitalism," Trotsky warned. It was only possible to defend these gains in the event of a permanent revolution, which would spread to the countries of Europe, where the victorious Western proletariat would help the proletariat of Russia to withstand the class struggle.
Lenin also considered the world revolution "a matter of the coming days." However, the passivity of the Western proletariat, the intransigence of the petty bourgeoisie, on which the future revolutionaries of an international scale were going to rely, the emergence of bureaucratic tendencies in the Soviet government changed plans. The idea of world domination of the proletariat was temporarily removed from the agenda: "Revolutions are not brought with the bayonets of the Red Army!" (Trotsky).
“Militarization of Labor”. Trotsky's labor army
Some historians have a false impression that after the Civil War, Trotsky was out of work, but this is not so. This is nothing more than a deliberate suppression and reduction of the role of the organizer and creator of the Red Army to nothing. Trotsky gushes with ideas: labor army, tax in kind, collectivization, trade unions, construction of railways, the creation of the Brotherhood Union … Many of them later (not always successfully) will be implemented by Stalin.
Any war leaves behind a destroyed economy and a restless army, unaccustomed to peaceful creative labor. The finished Civic “demobilized” more than 50 thousand men who needed to be attached somewhere: to feed, clothe, provide housing and work. In order to avoid the beginning of petty robbery of already impoverished cities and villages, theft and other criminal actions among the Red Army soldiers - workers and peasants - who were discharged into the reserve, Trotsky proposes to create a Trudarmy, calling this process the militarization of labor.
Before a muscular former warrior from the state of "rage" turns into his second state of a peaceful plowman - "monotony", he needs to go through some kind of adaptation. The Trudarmeys were engaged in the construction of railways, logging, clearing territories for new construction, as described in the novel by Nikolai Ostrovsky "How the steel was tempered." In those conditions, the idea of militarizing labor worked, having stood as a buffer against possible riots and banditry.
After analyzing the work and actions of Trotsky, one can see that he is one of the few members of the Government, in a urethral manner, becoming a pioneer in everything related to the country's transition to a peaceful track. He, who traveled a lot to the fronts during the Civil War, could not help but be struck by the plight of the peasants, whose farms were overlaid with surplus appropriation. It was a real robbery of the village.
Despite the fact that surplus appropriation for the maintenance of the army was more profitable, Trotsky proposes to replace it with a tax in kind. With this form of relations, grain is borrowed from the peasant, it is sold, and with the proceeds it becomes possible to purchase industrial equipment for the city. At the same time, Trotsky insists on the obligatory return of the debt to the countryside.
He understands that Russia is an agrarian country, and one cannot rely on the consciousness of a muscular peasant in matters of state policy and economic management. The backbone of any economy is the proletariat. Trotsky is sure that "powerful development of state industry" is possible only in the workers 'and peasants' union, but first of all, it is necessary "to provide the peasant with everything necessary, to prepare the ground for the inclusion of the peasant in the general system of socialist economy …"
Trotsky recognized worker-peasant relations as the basis of the mixed economy that still exists in Russia. This is the notorious concept of the confluence of city and village.
"Drunk budget … there can be no concessions"
In Russia, a program for the sale of vodka has been carried out several times to strengthen the state budget. In the early 1920s, Trotsky was the only member of the Politburo to object to such an action. He considered it unreasonable and criminal to solder workers in order to replenish the state treasury. It is known from system-vector psychology that a worker is the same muscle, a former villager who moved to the city.
By itself, the muscle, not being a drunkard and not having a special craving for alcohol, in certain conditions, namely, driven by archetypal dermatologists, is able to succumb to soldering. Alcoholism already in the second generation leads to the extinction of the gene pool of the nation, which means to serious demographic changes in the ethnic group. “To develop, strengthen, organize, and bring to the end the anti-alcohol regime in the country of reviving labor - this is our task … There can be no concessions here,” Trotsky urged.
The eight-hour working day, as a conquest of the revolution, introduces a "radical change" into the life of the proletariat, freeing "two-thirds of the day from factory labor." Trotsky worries about how a muscle, easily guided by nature, can fill this physical void. "The more productively eight hours of labor are used, the better, cleaner, more hygienic eight hours of sleep can be furnished, the more meaningful and cultured - eight hours of free." Those eight hours shouldn't be wasted drinking.
Collectivism is the natural core of the muscle that defines itself as "we". Taking advantage of this feature of the Russian mentality, Lev Davidovich saw the upbringing of a person of a new type and his further existence only in a group that instills collective values in the individual. It must be said that this experience was a success, and in the USSR a new type of people with a high consciousness and a "feeling of elbows" was indeed formed, ironically called "Homo soveticus" in the West.
Trotsky even proposes to introduce widespread public catering, considering it more useful than home meals. Alcohol consumption was discouraged in family and ordinary canteens. Lev Davidovich believed that all everyday life should be eliminated as a relic of a serf family, in which it is not known what is happening outside the walls of the dwelling. Taking a person out of patriarchal family relations out into public life, accustoming a new citizen of the country to new Soviet rituals, holidays, traditions, a healthy and cultural way of life - became one of the tasks of the Komsomol that Trotsky put before him.
The same applied to all the rest serving the family, public institutions - nurseries, kindergartens, schools, etc. Trotsky called on the Komsomol to "raise the 135-million-strong family of the Soviet Union" from traditional forms of life, connecting culture, education and necessarily cinema to meet the aesthetic needs of a person, because with a "businesslike approach, the film monopoly can play a role for the improvement of our finances, similar to the role of a vodka monopoly for the royal treasury." He proposed to combine "high American techniques" with Russian collectivism and on this basis create a new model of social relations.
Trotsky is often accused of hatred of Russian culture, citing the fact that he saw it as "a pathetic imitation of world standards." At the same time, few people know that Lev Davidovich was, perhaps, the only member of the Politburo who truly appreciated the work of Russian-Soviet poets and writers. One example of this is his admiration for Yesenin's poetry, whose death made a strong impression on Trotsky, which was expressed in the obituary by the words: "An unprotected human child fell into a cliff."
Trotsky's psychoanalysis and pedology
In the changed model of state structure, the new ideology of the young Land of Soviets presupposes the formation of a new person in a certain image and likeness. The beginning was laid by anti-alcohol propaganda, which affected adults. Children were to become the new citizens of a free socialist society.
While abroad, Lev Davidovich met Freud and became interested in his psychoanalysis, although psychoanalysis itself was known in Russia even before the revolution. Later, the Bolsheviks tried to combine it with the idea of building a new society with new people. Freudian theory did not contradict revolutionary ideology and was naturally supervised by the country's leadership and Trotsky himself.
In Soviet Russia, psychoanalytic societies were created, located in Kazan, Moscow, Petrograd. They were later merged. One of the most prominent figures in Soviet psychoanalysis was Sabina Spielrein. Thanks to her, the Soviet Association of Psychoanalysts was created, which became a member of the International Freudian Psychoanalytic Association. Born at the intersection of Freudianism and pedology, the introduction of which was also actively supported by Lev Davidovich, the idea of collective education of children allowed the USSR to develop an excellent system of nurseries and kindergartens.
The research was carried out on the basis of the experimental "Orphanage", where the children of the country's leaders lived, whom Trotsky proposed to "dilute" with children from workers' families. On the basis of these studies, a new "specifically Soviet science of the methods of remaking a person in childhood" was even created - a domestic version of pedology. The schools carried out "psychological testing, completing classes, organizing the regime."
Naturally, as always, there was a shortage of specialists, and, perhaps, therefore, one cannot fail to note some imbalances in the work of researchers. At the same time, it is difficult to exclude the fact that psychoanalysis played a positive role in the upbringing of the children of the country's top officials, who did not turn out to be the so-called "golden youth", but who became scientists, doctors, professional soldiers, test pilots, many of whom, like most Soviet people of their age, they gave their lives in the fight against fascism.
After Trotsky was expelled from the USSR in 1936, psychoanalysis and any mention of him were banned, and Freud's works published in Russia since 1904 were withdrawn. The Soviet Freudian school has been destroyed. Sabina Spielrein and both her daughters were shot by the Nazis in Rostov in 1942.
Leon Trotsky - a missed chance of the Russian revolution?
It is not excluded. After all, he never waged a behind-the-scenes struggle and did not claim to be the head of state, removing his associates. He simply did the work that the VKP (b) entrusted him, better than others understanding the needs and shortages of the Soviet people. In peacetime, it was he who called for discussion in the Government instead of harsh condemnations and bloody repressions, because in the "state of peace" the urethral leader has completely different concerns about the pack.
It is not known whether there was anyone else in the history of the Russian state who would have done as much in his short term in the Politburo as Trotsky.
He was the person who, together with Lenin, created a state of a new formation on the vast Russian territory, which existed for more than 70 years. He created the Red Army, the People's Commissariat of Railways, headed the scientific and technical administration under the Supreme Council of the National Economy and the concession administration, since he believed that it was necessary to establish trade relations with the outside world, he built the Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Station, wrote articles about literature and in his own works tried to analyze the pros and cons of the course of historical and revolutionary events.
To this day, there are attempts to find out who was one of the most prominent people of the 20th century, Lev Davidovich Trotsky - an angel or a demon. He is credited with facts that were not, speeches that they did not utter. At the same time, they deliberately forget what he really did for backward agrarian Russia, in which illiteracy among the peasants was 80%, among the proletariat - 60%, in the national outskirts - 99.5%.
In Russia his name is still covered with lies, his actions are falsified, his best deeds are attributed to others. In the West, Leon Trotsky is one of the most popular politicians and ideologists of the last century. His books have inspired more than one generation of revolutionaries around the world, they argue about him, accuse and expose, admire and imitate. Trotsky is a man of great talents and remarkable abilities. Only the Russian steppe can give birth to such titans at the right time in history. They, submitting to their disinterested urethral-sonic super-task "a leap into the future for the happiness of all people", become the head of the pack and entice it into the brightest future, where a fairy tale is capable of becoming a reality.