Valkyrie Of The Revolution. Alexandra Kollontai

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Valkyrie Of The Revolution. Alexandra Kollontai
Valkyrie Of The Revolution. Alexandra Kollontai
Video: Valkyrie Of The Revolution. Alexandra Kollontai
Video: Alexandra Kollontai And The Russian Revolution. 2023, February

Valkyrie of the revolution. Alexandra Kollontai

At an international conference in 1910, together with Klara Zetkin, Kollontai achieves a decision to celebrate March 8 as the Day of solidarity of all women in the struggle for their rights. In Russia, this holiday began to be celebrated since 1913.

At an international conference in 1910, together with Klara Zetkin, Kollontai achieves a decision to celebrate March 8 as the Day of solidarity of all women in the struggle for their rights. In Russia, this holiday began to be celebrated since 1913.

Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai - the name of this woman is covered with myths, fictions, legends. She was called the Valkyrie of the revolution, although she did not rush along the fronts of the Civil War, did not take part in the Red Terror, did not engage in surplus appropriation and collectivization, as her contemporaries, revolutionary women, did.

The role of Alexandra Mikhailovna in the creation of a new state cannot be considered without the epithet "first". The first woman minister in Russia, the first woman diplomat in the world, the first Russian woman sociologist. The research on motherhood and childhood, which she did more than 100 years ago, is still relevant today. The creator of the first in the history of the governing body of communist women - the Zhenotdel of the Central Committee of the RCP (b).

On her initiative, Zhenotdels began to be created in all union and autonomous republics and existed for a whole decade - until 1929. Their task was to provide assistance to the sick and wounded Red Army soldiers, and after the Civil War - the fight against hunger, devastation, the organization of catering points, orphanages and boarding schools. They were entrusted with a number of additional functions that changed the life of Soviet women.

Kollontay- 1
Kollontay- 1

There is evidence that the Zhenotdely in the center and in the localities faced active opposition, open hostility and even aggression. Their co-workers often fell prey to the preachers of hardened domestic relations, entrenched in their centuries-old anal traditions. Sometimes more than 200 delegates a year were subjected to physical violence, violence and murder in different parts of the country.

Alexandra Mikhailovna, as befits a person with a urethral vector, has always followed an unpredictable path, easily changing directions leading to the goal, and they were determined many years before the start of the revolution. Choosing her future on her own, she did not become an obedient daughter and a good - in the common understanding among the nobility - a wife. She, a polymorph with urethra and sound, was stuffy in the circle of family relationships, where the wife is engaged in housekeeping and raising children.

Once, unable to withstand this domestic vacuum, inspired by Marxist books, she breaks with her husband, leaves her son in the care of her parents and leaves for Switzerland: who knows, maybe, having heard the call of a future revolution, where the interests of the female part of the pack, the interests of the future, will be determined, until unborn children-orphans, and later the interests and states that she will represent, defend, for which she will fight.

This type of urethral woman could only appear in Russia, and at the right time - on the eve of October. In general, many women participated in the preparatory process, the coup itself and the Civil War. The first to get down to business were the "women of the People's Will", whose activities extended first to the villages in the form of teaching peasants to write and count, and then to the city - by terrorist acts and attempts on the life of the tsar and his entourage.

Alexandra Kollontai has never been a revolutionary "with a bomb and a revolver in her reticule." There are different methods of struggle and ways to achieve goals. Brilliantly educated, Alexandra Mikhailovna was eager to make revolutionary changes in improving the lives of Russian women in a bloodless way.

Her weapon was a sharp mind and an expressive word, which was listened to not only at rallies, but also at diplomatic receptions, where Kollontai made speeches in Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, English, German, French … and Russian.

She knew how to subordinate everyone to her will and charm - soldiers and sailors, factory workers and intellectuals, prime ministers and kings, ordinary fishermen and the richest entrepreneurs in Europe.

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Kollontay- 2

From enemies and opponents, she made comrades-in-arms and like-minded people, finding their "weak spots" and persuading them to their side, and therefore to the side of the Soviet Union. Until now, the methods that Alexandra Kollontai used in the ingenious interweaving of a tough male game called "international diplomacy" have not been studied.

But any more or less accomplished historian, or even just an anal rogue, strives to pour out a tub of dirt and insults on the image of this outstanding woman. Well, everyone sees in the deeds and actions of a member of the First Soviet Government, People's Commissar A. M. Kollontai that which is closer to him, filling his own shortages.

Of course, Kollontai's special urethral sexuality attracted men who were ready to follow her to the ends of the world or to shoot a bullet in the forehead, however, there are more myths and gossip around her name than real events. Everybody tried. Some Bolsheviks did not share her theory of the liberation of a woman from the control of a man, and even under the new government they were not going to surrender their positions to "women". Without understanding and inattentively reading her articles or listening to her speeches about "love and eros", they viewed Kollontai as a distributor of dangerous ideas of female debauchery. Young people enthusiastically greeted her books, often taking their content too literally.

"When I was young … I was striving somewhere in the future"

In any case, Alexandra Kollontai managed to show the whole world that it was time for a woman to go outside. The hour has come when a woman is no longer satisfied with the old, cave-like forms of relationships. She is not able to fill herself in the old ways - through her family and children. She has new desires - for learning, development, orgasm, independent, without the help of parents, the choice of a man and a way of life.

Alexandra Kollontai through herself, through her own relaxed nature felt, caught these new trends in society, calling on women not to sexual freedom and licentiousness, as many sources claim, but to freedom of choice. With the revolution, for the first time, a woman ceases to be the property of a man. This behavior in a more exaggerated version was picked up by skin-visual women, who quickly adapted to the new Soviet landscape.

In addition, Kollontai was a rebellious People's Commissar and often opposed the decisions of the Politburo. Just like Trotsky, she, observing the growth of bureaucratic tendencies in the Government, pointed this out to Lenin. She, like Lev Davidovich, was against the beginning of repressions and unjustified bloodshed, calling for discussion and analysis of mistakes.

Kollontai, as a "traitor" of the aristocratic class, was not favored by the White emigres, who did not hesitate to publish the most absurd (sometimes even offensive) rumors and gossips about her in their Western newspapers.

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Kollontay- 3

In Soviet Russia and in émigré circles, they whispered about her endless novels, broken commissar hearts, about her fabulous wealth and fantastic attractiveness.

Actually, all this is not the main thing. The main thing is that Kollontai always went against it. Contrary to public morality, traditional foundations. As a swimmer against the tide, she set off against the prevailing opinions, threw herself into the raging sea of ​​discussions and disputes, defended her own views with all urethral passion, not fearing to become in opposition to the powers that be.

Accepting the outline of the set rules of the game, she embroidered her patterns on it with her own special style and talent. While the revolutionaries were destroying the old world, Kollontai was already involved in creative activities in the fall of 1917. The urethral leaders lead the pack into the future, and the urethral leaders do not want to be half a step behind them.

Kollontai dreamed of taking a woman out of the influence of her husband and everyday life, making her free in choosing a profession, training, and in social work. In her personal life, she urged women to new forms of relationships, suggested making serious changes to the institution of marriage, and simplifying the procedure for registration and divorce.

Alexandra Kollontai knew well the life of Russian women, where a woman, in her status, was equated with livestock and had no right to vote. Working abroad and being in close contacts with the leaders of the European suffrage and feminist movements, she knew how women workers in Europe and America live and could compare their life with the life of women in Russia.

In 1916, her book "Society and Motherhood" was published - this is the first sociological study conducted by the author in his country, where there was the highest birth rate and the highest infant mortality. In the "black statistics of infant mortality" given by Kollontai, the leaders were not the imperial outskirts, but the central provinces of Russia.

On average, out of a thousand babies under one year old, 350 are brought to the churchyard. Only one out of three children lived to adulthood - such was the objective and unbiased Russian statistics. Alexandra Kollontai initially, long before the October events, defined the most important task for herself, which can be formulated as the role of a woman in the state with her complete social rehabilitation. In a country where about 80% of the population did not know how to read and write, and 90% of Russian women were peasant women, factory workers, servants and, doing hard work on an equal basis with men, did not receive any maternity leave, childcare or disability pay.

There was an average of 6,500 people per doctor in a rural district of pre-revolutionary Russia, and one certified midwife for 4,000 women. In cities, due to hard work in factories and factories, hazardous production, lack of labor protection, up to half of women gave birth to dead children. Babies who were destined to be born did not live to be one year old. This is a scanty piece of statistics collected by Alexandra Kollontai.

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Kollontay- 4

People's Commissar for Public Charity

Having studied the state of everyday life of Russian women, Alexandra Mikhailovna, during her two years abroad, prepared a number of serious documents, laws, decrees concerning the female and children's part of the population. Russia still uses many of these laws and regulations. Thus, about 100 years ago, Kollontai laid the foundation for the future Soviet social security system, which existed for more than 70 years.

In the fall of 1917, immediately after the victory of the October Revolution, Aleksandra Mikhailovna received from Lenin an appointment to the post of People's Commissar of Public Charity, created the College of Charity for Minors and, a year later, the Child Protection Department: accounting, control, unification of all orphanages, charitable societies, orphanages children of refugees.

Today there is a lot of talk about the fact that in pre-revolutionary Russia large funds were received from the treasury and from individuals for charity, the construction of schools, hospitals, orphanages, public reading rooms and museums. This is partly true, but only partly. Rare hospitals, hospitals and orphanages were under the patronage of the first persons of the state, where princesses or other noble ladies, disguised as sisters of mercy, “honed” their visual vector with compassion. A useful idea, however, which did not cover the lack of all those in need in the vastness of the Great Empire in the matter of charity.

Former pre-revolutionary orphanages were rebuilt into orphanages, in which orphans who were brought up were provided with clothing, food, and medical care. In addition to regular education, orphanages received a profession in labor schools.

One of the tasks set by the Revolution was the health of the nation and demographic growth, the full recovery of the muscle population, which suffered greatly on the fronts of the First World War and the Civil War.

So, after the October Revolution, signed by AM Kollontai, for the first time in Russia, there will be a decree "On the Protection of Motherhood and Infancy" and the legislative consolidation of maternity leave for expectant mothers. From now on, the young Soviet state was to take care of mothers and children as its direct responsibility. The statistics of clandestine abortions and their consequences, which made women disabled, impressed the Social People's Commissar - she is seeking the adoption of a law allowing abortions.

Kollontai, like Lenin and Trotsky, speaks at rallies, however, each of them has his own audience and his own tasks. Alexandra Mikhailovna addresses the workers of factories and plants. An elegant, intelligent, excellent speaker, with her fiery speeches, she kindles the fire of freedom in the hearts of the listeners, delighting everyone who is at the rallies.

The idea of ​​public education is being embodied by Alexandra Kollontai and Leo Trotsky in the system of nurseries and kindergartens. The manifestation of care for her flock is what the urethral female adopts from the urethral leader, in accordance with her nature.

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Kollontay- 5

A. M. Kollontai, walking through uncharted paths, was the first in everything: first the first woman minister of the social sphere in history, then the first woman ambassador who subtly and intelligently carried out the ideas of the Soviet Union. For the first time, the reception ceremony at the courts of the kings of Norway and Sweden is reshaped for it, and the charming ambassador, meanwhile, is seeking recognition of the young Land of the Soviets and successfully playing diplomatic games with those from whom the saturation of the Soviet market, destroyed and still being restored, is curled up.

Well-developed properties of the skin vector "suggest" to Alexandra Mikhailovna successful combinations in matters of international trade with capitalist countries. Non-standard urethral thinking solves the puzzles with the withdrawal of the Nazi divisions and the northern allies from the war. Her merits include the signing of an armistice between the USSR and Finland. By that time, Alexandra Kollontai was 70 years old, and she could only move in a wheelchair.

Any historical person is like an iceberg. Kollontai is no exception. Much has been written about her, but in fact few people know her, because her archives, stolen from the Soviet embassy during her short absence, are still inaccessible. Her books and works have not been reprinted.

Pseudo-consent revealed the most base qualities of those people who, in a muddy kaleidoscope of their own negativity, look at the world in the past and present, scolding everyone and everything around, forgetting at the same time that many benefits that still survived after perestroika were created and conquered by people who made the revolution.

Today's literate people lose sight of the fact that, for the most part, their grandfathers and great-grandfathers were illiterate, and the condition and state of health of their grandmothers and great-grandmothers was simply appalling. The fact that these critics are alive is the direct merit of Alexandra Kollontai, who achieved free medical care and free secondary education.

A modern free, socially active woman in Russia is also the fruit of the creation of Alexandra Mikhailovna. Alexandra Kollontai's star did not roll, its light is felt in everyday Russian life. Few women have done as much for their country and their people as this fragile, but such a strong, intelligent, beautiful and very talented woman did.

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Kollontay- 6

Surprisingly, stars are named after urethral people. There are minor planets Vladvysotckiy, Gagarin and Kollontai. And if the stars call them by their names, it means that someone needs it.

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