Improving the programs of postgraduate professional education of pharmacists from the position of system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan
At present, system-vector psychology is used as an analysis tool not only in psychology, but also in other areas associated with human activity, knowledge, including medicine and pedagogy.
In the collection of scientific papers of the International Scientific and Practical Conference "Scientific Research": Questions of Pedagogy, Philology, Psychology, Philosophy, History, Jurisprudence, Economics, Ecology ", which took place in Moscow, a work was published in which the issues of pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology are considered for the first time. the stage of postgraduate education of pharmacists from the position of system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan and based on the results of content analysis of federal state standards of higher professional education in the specialty "Pharmacy" of the second and third generations.
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Improving the programs of postgraduate professional education of pharmacists from the position of system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan
Introduction. One of the priority directions of the state social policy of the Russian Federation is the preservation and strengthening of the health of citizens on the basis of improving the quality of medical and pharmaceutical care. On the part of higher educational institutions, this fact implies the need for continuous improvement of activities to achieve and maintain an appropriate level of professional training of highly qualified medical and pharmaceutical personnel.
In order to update and improve the quality of postgraduate professional education of health workers in the specialty "Pharmacy", we have analyzed their current educational needs.
The need for certain knowledge, skills and abilities for specialists is dictated by the need not only of every person who turns to them for specific pharmaceutical help, but also of society as a whole. It seems interesting to identify those actual requirements that meet the real need for a pharmacist to have certain professional competencies from a public point of view. To achieve this goal, the object of the study was considered from the standpoint of modern psychological knowledge about a person - the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan.
Currently, system-vector psychology is used as a tool for analysis not only in psychology, but also in other areas associated with human activity, knowledge, including medicine and pedagogy [2, 4, 5, 7].
The concept of the human psyche from the point of view of the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan is based on its consideration as an eight-dimensional differentiated structure. This possibility of differentiation makes it possible to reveal and explain the existing patterns of both individual and collective human behavior, both at a particular moment in time and throughout the development of mankind. Thus, the entire period of society's existence is divided by system-vector psychology into four phases with clearly defined goals and mechanisms for achieving these goals.
The system of values of the modern phase of the development of society corresponds to the trend towards standardization, globalization of the processes taking place in various areas of human activity and their integration with each other, increased attention to meeting the needs (quality of life) of people. The characteristic outstripping practice of the growth of information security dictates the need to search for tools for quick adoption of decisions on its basis, appropriate in the ratio of the resources spent (time, money, etc.) and the resulting effect, benefits.
In the transposition of the designated on the field of human health, we should note the growth of life expectancy and its quality due to the expansion of possibilities and the increase in the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive measures, the increased possibilities of pharmacotherapy of diseases. The achievement of such a result by healthcare became possible due to the gradual departure from the prevalence of traditional decision-making practice based on the personal experience of a doctor or pharmacist, to the formation and active use of standardized selection methods exclusively for those medical interventions that have proven their effectiveness and safety at the population level in relation to the patient. with a specific diagnosis.
The methodological basis for such a choice is pharmacoepidemiology - the result of the synthesis of clinical pharmacology, as the science of the clinical effects of the use of drugs (drugs), and epidemiology, containing methods for assessing the health of large groups of people.
To establish the feasibility of practical implementation of such an approach to treatment, based on the health budget, i.e. to correlate the obtained effect of treatment with the costs incurred by the system, a clinical and economic (pharmacoeconomic) assessment of medical interventions (drug therapy) is used.
Thus, the need for knowledge and use in practice of pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomic approaches, being an objective natural necessity from the standpoint of systemic vector psychology, serves as a guarantee of effective, safe and economically feasible therapy for everyone who applies for medical or pharmaceutical care. In turn, from the point of view of a specialist, this is his ability to make an independent professional choice in the existing variety of information, in the case of a pharmacist - information on the constantly growing assortment of drugs.
In order to make a decision on the need for additional inclusion of issues on pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology in the subject of postgraduate professional education programs in the specialty "Pharmacy", we need to find out whether graduates of pharmaceutical faculties possess the conceptual apparatus and methods of the indicated analyzes, coupled with specialized search tools. information on medicinal products (MP).
In order to achieve this goal and answer the indicated question, a content analysis of regulatory documents regulating modern requirements for higher pharmaceutical education was carried out. Currently, university students receive training in accordance with the federal state educational standards (FSES) of higher professional education (HPE) in the relevant specialty. We have analyzed the composition of the FSES HPE of the second and third generations in the direction of training "Pharmacy" [1, 3].
The last FSES HPE 060301 "Pharmacy" came into effect in September 2011. The structure of the basic educational programs (OEP) of this FSES does not provide for separate pharmacoeconomic and pharmacoepidemiological disciplines. However, the standard provides for a number of professional competencies (PCs) as requirements for the results of mastering OEP in training specialists, which directly or indirectly correlate with the need to obtain knowledge in the field of pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology at the university. These are PCs such as:
- “The ability and willingness to apply the basic methods, methods and means of obtaining, storing, processing scientific and professional information; receive information from various sources, including using modern computer tools, network technologies, databases and knowledge (PC-1) ";
- "The ability and readiness to study the demand and demand for various groups of pharmaceutical products (PC-7)";
- “Ability and readiness for scientifically grounded application of modern marketing and information systems in pharmacy (PC-9)”;
- "The ability and readiness to develop, test and register drugs, optimize existing drugs based on modern technologies, biopharmaceutical research and control methods in accordance with the international system of requirements and standards (PC-28)";
- "The ability and readiness for informational work among doctors, pharmacists on the use of drugs, their belonging to a certain pharmacotherapeutic group, indications and contraindications for use, the possibility of replacing one drug with another and their rational intake (PC-43)";
- “The ability and readiness for information and advisory activities when dispensing drugs and other pharmaceutical products to institutional and end users (PC-44)”;
- "The ability and willingness to work with scientific literature, analyze information, conduct a search, turn what has been read into a means of solving professional problems (highlight the main provisions, consequences of them and sentences) (PC-48)";
- "The ability and willingness to participate in the formulation of scientific problems and their experimental implementation (PC-49)" and so on. .
Moreover, for future graduates enrolled in the third generation FSES HPE, the designated competencies include the need to know:
- "Features of social insurance and social security, the basics of organizing insurance medicine in the Russian Federation",
- "The basics of organizing drug provision for outpatient and inpatient patients with drugs at full cost, citizens entitled to social assistance", etc., and also be able to:
- "To determine groups of drugs for the treatment of a specific disease and to choose the most effective and safe drugs",
- “Predict and evaluate unwanted drug reactions, know the procedure for their registration”, etc. .
Despite the absence of pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology in the HPE program as independent disciplines, the declared set of knowledge and skills of today's students enrolled since 2011, and their subsequent professional competencies, gives reason to hope that these pharmaceutical specialists will take timely measures in their daily professional practice. solutions solely based on their effectiveness, safety and economic feasibility for each individual person.
The absence in the previous Federal State Educational Standard of the designated subject in the requirements for the mandatory minimum content of OOP for the training of pharmacists  reduces the efficiency of such specialists, making it impossible to quickly and consciously navigate the information field, i.e. puts them in a less competitive position today and even more so in the future
The lack of necessary knowledge in the field of pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology is confirmed by the results of our survey of those who entered the clinical internship in 2013 in the specialties "Management and Economics of Pharmacy" and "Pharmaceutical Technology". The test was attended by graduates of the pharmaceutical faculties of eight universities of the central federal district. The respondents were offered 25 terms that are widely used today in the presentation of the results of clinical and clinical and economic research. The subjects were required to indicate whether they were familiar with these terms or not.
As a result, according to the results of the questionnaire, it was revealed that in 41% of cases when the term was presented to the intern, the answers were negative. The percentage of "knowledge" of terms ranged from 14% to, in a single case, 90% (the term "pharmacoeconomics"), i.e. none of the proposed terms was familiar to 100% of the interviewed specialists with malware. Common terms such as "ATC / DDD system", "cohort", "comparator", "surrogate endpoint", "Cochrane Collaboration" were unfamiliar to the maximum audience size (from 72% to 86% of negative answers).
Of course, ignorance of the basic terms indicates the impossibility of perceiving information in the appropriate content, and even more critically assessing it from the point of view of understanding the features of the analysis methodology. The identified need for knowledge of terminology among students was also confirmed in the study of competencies in the field of pharmacoepidemiology, conducted by employees of the Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy .
The obtained results of the analysis of current educational needs formed the basis for measures to improve the training of qualified personnel in the specialty "Pharmacy" at the Faculty of Postgraduate Education (FPE) of Kursk State Medical University. The staff of the Department of Pharmacy FPO developed and included in the "Basic professional educational programs of postgraduate professional education of pharmacists (internship)" elective "Modern problems of pharmacoeconomics and rational pharmacotherapy", which considers the issues of pharmacoeconomic and pharmacoepidemiological analyzes of the use of drugs.
The elective course is implemented in accordance with the current federal state requirements for the structure of the main professional educational internship program within the framework of elective disciplines.
Output. By means of Yuri Burlan's system-vector psychology, the necessity of a modern pharmacist to have professional competencies in the field of pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology has been substantiated. Based on the results of content analysis of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education in the specialty "Pharmacy" in 2003 and 2011. revealed a significant difference in the amount of required knowledge and skills on the designated topic. To reduce the differences in the training of specialists of different editions and to update the postgraduate professional education of pharmaceutical workers, an elective course on the basics of pharmacoeconomic and pharmacoepidemiological analyzes has been formed and is used in the educational process.
List of references:
- State educational standard of higher professional education. Specialty 040500 - "Pharmacy". Qualification - pharmacist. Registration No. 134 med / sp [Electronic resource]: approved. Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation 03/10/2000 Access from the reference - legal system "ConsultantPlus".
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- On the approval and implementation of the federal state educational standard of higher professional education in the direction of training (specialty) 060301 Pharmacy (qualification (degree) specialist) "specialist") [Electronic resource]: Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of 17.01.11, No. 38 as amended. Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of 05/31/2011 No. 1975. Access from the reference legal system "ConsultantPlus".
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- Gulyaeva A., Ochirov V. Yuri Burlan's System Vector Psychology in the practice of personal authenticity acquirement by psychotherapeutic methods // The collection of materials of SCIEURO: the recent trends in science and technology management (09-10 May 2013). London: Berforts Information Press Ltd, 2013. P. 355-358.