Manifestations Of The Mentality Of The People In The Grammar Of Their Language

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Manifestations Of The Mentality Of The People In The Grammar Of Their Language
Manifestations Of The Mentality Of The People In The Grammar Of Their Language

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Manifestations of the mentality of the people in the grammar of their language

This article will consider the issue of the connection between the mentality of the people and the grammatical features of their language. This research requires, of course, an appeal to areas of knowledge that reveal such mental properties that would characterize different mentalities.

In the section "10.00.00 Philological Sciences" of the journal

Philological sciences. Questions of theory and practice

included in the list of the Higher Attestation Commission, an article has been printed illustrating the importance of the use of Yuri Burlan's System-Vector Psychology in linguistics.

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We present the text of the article included in the VAK journal (ISSN 1997-2911):

MANIFESTATIONS OF THE MENTALITY OF THE PEOPLE IN THE GRAMMAR OF ITS LANGUAGE

1. Grammar and psychology

This article will consider the issue of the connection between the mentality of the people and the grammatical features of their language. This research requires, of course, an appeal to areas of knowledge that reveal such mental properties that would characterize different mentalities.

Today, the newest and most promising knowledge about a person, capable of explaining the maximum of phenomena associated with a person, is the system-vector psychology of Yu. Burlan [13]. The creation of this science became possible due to the scientific discoveries of Z. Freud, S. Spielrein, V. Gansen, V. Tolkachev and Y. Burlan [4; ten]. Currently, these discoveries are beginning to be applied in a variety of areas related to humans: medicine, psychology, pedagogy, forensic science [3; 7; ten; eleven]. Thanks to the revealed mental properties and their regularities, it became possible to give characteristics that determine both the individual characteristics of a person and his mental superstructure.

According to the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan, a person is a social being, correlating with society as internal, private with external, general. Nature endows a person, firstly, with one or another unconscious type of desire, which is important for the existence and development of mankind, and, secondly, with properties that ensure the realization of this desire in society. Unconscious desires are closely related to consciousness, namely, to thinking, which just creates thoughts about how to realize them. Thought, as you know, exists in linguistic form, as a result of which thinking is closely associated with language [1]. Since the basis of our mental is the property of a private element of the system (a person) to participate in the general system (in society, in the development of mankind), it is interesting to consider a similar phenomenon at the level of language,namely, to study the implementation of the word in the sentence.

The question of the implementation of a word as a dictionary virtual concept in its specific speech use was raised by the Swiss linguist S. Bally. According to this scientist, a dictionary concept is defined only by its content as a set of characteristic features inherent in it, indicated in explanatory dictionaries. The use of this concept in speech is accompanied by its actualization, that is, the identification of a "pure" vocabulary concept with a real representation of the speaking subject [2, p. 87]. Thus, the function of actualization is to translate language into speech. This mechanism is carried out through the so-called actualizers. Thus, in ce livre (this book), the indicative determinative ce connects the virtual concept of a book with the book that the situation or context represents. The use of the verb ré gner (to reign) in the personal form ré gnait (to reign),expressing the time, person and number of the verb, connects the virtual concept of reign with a specific reign in the past [Ibid, p. 93–94].

The actualization of the verb is accompanied by its change according to those grammatical (morphological) categories that exist in the language for this part of speech. So, for example, in Russian you cannot use a verb without giving it either an indefinite form (read), or a personal form (read, read, read, etc.). As for the latter, it is impossible to use a verb in this form without changing it according to those morphological categories that exist in the language for a verb in a personal form, namely, one mood or another, tense, person and number: reads, reads, reads, reads, read, etc.

Thus, morphological categories are inherent in a word both at the level of a dictionary concept related to a certain part of speech, and at the level of an actualized concept used in a sentence in a particular morphological form.

Let us now consider the question of the actualization of which parts of speech should be studied when studying the connection between the mentality of the people and their language.

According to the theory of L. Tenier, the verb is the core of the sentence, since the very lexical meaning of the verb presupposes participants in the situation expressed by it [15, p. 26]. So, for example, the situation indicated by the verb to give involves three participants:

1) the agent who performs the action (the one who gives);

2) the person in whose favor he performs this action (the one to whom it is given);

3) the object that is most closely related to the action of the agent (what is given).

These potential participants in the situation expressed by the lexical meaning of the verb are called its valence. When this verb is implemented in a sentence, they are concretized, forming, for example, such phrases He gave the book to his brother, Parents give the child toys, etc.

The verb and the participants in the situation it denotes form a sentence structure, the core of which is the verb:

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In the sentence, this structure is implemented taking into account the linearity of speech, which allows both the separation of interconnected structural units and their division into separate words. So, for example, in phrases He presented a book to his brother, He gave a book to his brother, the selected addition loses its spatial connection with the verb on which it depends. Or, for example, the structural unit donated is broken down into two elements on the line of speech - the auxiliary verb and the participle offert, which form a complex verb form: Il offert un livre à son fr è re (He gave his brother a book), see [Ibid, p. 30–31, 58].

Thus, just like morphological categories, valence properties are inherent in a word both at the level of a dictionary concept (to give: someone, something, to someone), and at the level of a concept actualized in a sentence (He gave his brother a book). They differ only on the basis of non-realization / realization.

Since the verb is the core of the sentence, the actualization of this particular part of speech should be considered to identify the main features of the mentality. As for additional mental properties, it can be assumed that they are reflected in the actualization of nouns, since nouns also occupy an important place in the sentence, indicating the participants in the situation indicated by the verb.

The second paragraph will deal with the actualization of verbs, and the third - the actualization of nouns.

2. Actualization of verbs

As we saw in the previous paragraph, both types of verbal properties (grammatical and valence) are present both in the potential state and in the realized form. The analyzed material shows that different languages ​​accentuate either one or the other aspects of the language: either a word as a carrier of lexical meaning (and hence of valency), or a word as a carrier of grammatical meaning. The fact is that in languages ​​there are not only simple verb forms, consisting of one word, but also complex ones, consisting of two or three words. If in Russian there is a tendency to combine lexical and grammatical meanings in one verb form (read, read), then in many Western languages ​​complex forms are very common, which are a combination of an auxiliary verb and a participle. So, the verb translate (for example,in the phrase I translated the text), despite its integrity as a lexical unit, takes on a complex two-component form:

English: He has translated the text.

German: Er hat den Text übersetzt.

French: Il traduit le texte.

The first component (the verb to have) completely loses its semantics and expresses exclusively grammatical meaning: has / hat / - third person, singular, present. The lexical meaning is indicated only by the second component of a complex form: translated, ü bersetzt, traduit.

In many Western languages, a whole system of grammatical tenses and moods is built on the principle of differentiating lexical and grammatical meanings in complex verb forms. The auxiliary verb indicates the temporal plane in relation to which the completeness / incompleteness of the situation indicated by the second component (participle) is expressed. For example, in the following examples, the auxiliary verb is in the present tense, so the perfect participle expresses completeness in relation to the present moment:

English language: I have read …

German: Ich habe… gelesen.

French: J'ai lu …

In the following examples, the auxiliary verb is used in the past tense, so the perfect participle denotes completeness in relation to some moment in the past:

English language: I had read …

German language: Ich hatte… gelesen.

French: J'avais lu …

In the following examples, the auxiliary verb is used in the future tense, so the perfect participle indicates completion in relation to some moment in the future:

English: I'll have read …

German: Ich werde… gelesen haben.

French: J'aurai lu … [2]

In Japanese, verbs do not change in person and number, but they have different forms, indicating temporary, conditional, conjectural, etc. values. Therefore, in Japanese, it is according to these forms that the auxiliary verb changes. For example, if a long form is formed by combining the past participle in -te / -de with the auxiliary verbs iru, oru and their synonyms (kaite iru - I am writing now), then temporary, conditional, conjectural, and other forms are subsequently formed with using the same auxiliary verbs iru, oru, used in the appropriate form: kaite ita - wrote, kaite inakatta - did not write, kaite ireba - if he wrote, kaite ie - I will probably write [3] [8, p. 111].

For comparison, we note here that in the Russian language, although there are complex temporal forms of verbs, they do not form an integral system, as in the languages ​​discussed above. Thus, the complex future tense in Russian I will read is not included in the system of complex tenses formed according to a similar model: there are no forms in our language * I was to read, * I am to read [4].

Let us dwell here on another language - Chinese, in which, like the Western and Japanese languages ​​discussed above, the lexical and grammatical meanings of the verbs are expressed separately. In the Chinese language, when designating different time planes, an unchanging verb form is always used, expressing only lexical meaning. The grammatical meaning of time is conveyed in a separate word, through another part of speech - the adverb of time or a particle (过 [guò], 了 [le]). So, in the Chinese sentence 昨天 我 吃 鸡 [zuótiān wǒ chī jī] (Yesterday I ate chicken) the verb conveys only the lexical meaning - the very situation “eat, take food”, without conveying any grammatical information. The grammatical meaning is expressed separately from the verb in the adverb yesterday, indicating that the action is related to the plan of the past [5].

Unlike the languages ​​discussed above, Russian and Arabic are characterized by a tendency to designate lexical and grammatical meanings holistically, in one word. The lexical meaning is usually conveyed through the root of the verb and partially through the prefixes, and the grammatical meaning is expressed through the prefixes, suffixes and endings of the verb. So, in Russian, the past tense is formed with the suffix -л and the following endings: zero (for the masculine singular) -a (for the feminine singular), -o (for the neuter singular) and - and (for the plural): played, played, played, played. In Arabic, the past tense of a verb is formed with the following personal endings: ْتُ – 1 person singular. نَا –1 person, pl. h., ْتَ– 2 l., unit. h., husband. p., ْتُمْ – 2 y., pl. h., husband. p., ْتِ - 2 sheets, unit. h., wives. R. ْتُنَّ – 2 y., Pl. h., wives. R. etc.For example, the verb ضَرَبَ to hit, to beat is conjugated as follows: ضَرَبْتُ– I hit, ضَرَبْنَا– we hit, ضَرَبْتَ– you hit, ضَرَبْتُمْ– you hit (male), تُنَّبْتِ– you hit.) etc. [14, p. 38].

As mentioned above, the verb assumes two levels:

1) the level of a vocabulary concept, which is the lexical meaning of a word;

2) the level of an actualized concept, correlated with a specific representation of the speaker through grammatical verb categories.

Therefore, we can say that if it is necessary to simultaneously express the lexical and grammatical meanings of a verb, the language is faced with the choice of what exactly to take for the integrity of the word:

1) a word as a dictionary virtual unit - a unit with lexical meaning;

2) a word as a unit with grammatical meaning - the meaning involved in the actualization of the verb.

In different languages, there is a tendency towards either the first or the second option. In the event that the tendency to preserve the integrity of the word corresponding to the vocabulary concept dominates, we can speak of an emphasis on the temporal aspect, since it is precisely in time, with any use in speech that the lexical meaning that is potentially given in the vocabulary verb is realized.

And, conversely, if the tendency to express grammatical meaning in a single word dominates, we can talk about an emphasis on the spatial aspect, since grammatical meaning is formed precisely in space - on the line of speech, in a sentence.

According to the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan, each person has one or more vectors - that is, types of desires and mental characteristics associated with their implementation (properties, values, etc.). An individual vector set, as a rule, is combined with a mental superstructure representing the values ​​of certain vectors. In this science, four types of vectors have been identified that make up the mental superstructure. The mentality is based on one of four vectors: muscle, anal, cutaneous or urethral [5].

1) The Chinese have a muscular mentality - a mentality that provides an increase in "mass", a large increase in population.

2) Residents of Arab countries are carriers of the anal mentality - a mentality focused on preserving the traditional way of life.

3) Residents of Western countries and Japan have a skin mentality - a mentality aimed at accelerated innovative development, building a consumer society (due to their inherent rational thinking).

4) Russians have a urethral mentality - a mentality that facilitates a breakthrough into the unknown due to their inherent priority of the general over the particular and the value “the highest justice is above the law” [6].

System-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan proves that muscle and cutaneous vectors belong to quartels of space, and anal and urethral vectors - to quartels of time. According to this science, the people of China, Japan and Western countries have a mentality related to space quartels (skin / muscle). As we have seen, Chinese, Japanese, and the Western languages ​​we have examined are characterized by a tendency to emphasize the linear aspect of verb properties - an aspect associated with the grammatical design of content on the line of speech. Thus, the grammar of these languages ​​reflects the features of the vectors of the space quartet.

On the contrary, the inhabitants of Russia and the Arab countries are carriers of the mentality related to the quartels of time (urethral / anal).

As shown above, in the Russian and Arabic languages ​​there is a tendency to emphasize the temporal aspect of verb properties - an aspect associated with the lexical meaning that is given in a dictionary verb potentially and is realized in time, that is, with any use in speech. Thus, the Russian and Arabic languages ​​reflect the peculiarities of the vectors of the time quarter.

Consider whether the mental differences are manifested in any other grammatical features. According to Yuri Burlan's system-vector psychology, such aspects of reality as internal and external play a very important role in the human psyche. The close relationship of these aspects, creating a single integrity of human development, is manifested, for example, in the fact that

- a change in external reality is potentially inherent in the psyche itself and its abilities;

- we are looking for the realization of our desires in the external world;

- the changed improved reality affects, in turn, a person and humanity, raising them to a new level of development.

If all mental properties of a person are aimed at changing reality, and the latter has external and internal aspects, then the very properties of the psyche also include both aspects. And due to the fact that consciousness and thinking are associated with language, these aspects are reflected in linguistic properties.

In this regard, it is interesting to consider whether the verb properties are expressed in the sentence independently, in the verb itself, or whether they are revealed under the influence of the external environment, that is, the context, of other words in the sentence.

As shown above, Chinese, Japanese, and many Western languages ​​emphasize the linear, spatial aspect - the aspect associated with expressing grammatical meaning. Therefore, in these languages, the role of the external environment will be considered precisely when identifying the grammatical meaning of the verb.

In Japanese and Western languages, as a rule, many grammatical meanings expressed by a verb can be determined without the influence of context. For example, it is enough to extract from a sentence such French forms as mangeront, verront, feront, and we can say that they indicate the third person, plural, active voice, indicative mood, future tense. The English forms drinks, walks indicate the use of verbs in the third person, singular, active voice, indicative mood, present indefinite tense, affirmative [7]. Note here that in different languages ​​and in different verb forms, the quantity and quality of the information expressed can vary. For example, Japanese verbs do not change in person and number, but their forms can carry grammatical information,absent in the verb forms of other languages. Thus, the Japanese verb taberu (eat, eat) has the following grammatical forms.

taberu, (polite form - tabemas (u) - present-future tense, affirmative form: I eat / eat, you eat / sing, etc.

tabenai, (polite tabemasen) - present-future tense, negative form: I do not eat / do not eat, you do not eat / do not eat, etc.

tabeta, (polite tabemashita) - past tense, affirmative: I ate, you ate, etc.

tabenakatta (polite tabemasen desita) - past tense, negative form: I did not eat, you did not eat, etc.

tabero, tabeyo - imperative mood: eat! eat!

tabeyou - strong-willed mood: let's eat!

tabetara - the subjunctive mood: if I sing, if you sing, etc.

tabesaseru - causative: because of what I eat, because of what you eat, etc.

taberareru - probabilistic form: I could eat, you could eat, etc. (see [16]).

In contrast, Chinese verbs do not change. The characteristics of the subject (person, number) to which the situation expressed by the verb is attributed follows from the context, the verb tense is conveyed by particles or adverbs of tense, that is, it also follows from the context (see the example given above Yesterday I ate a chicken in which the past tense is expressed only through adverb yesterday).

Comparison of both types of languages ​​leads to the following conclusions. In Japanese and many Western languages, the internal element of the phrase is very much involved in expressing grammatical meaning. In other words, in these languages ​​the internal element of the phrase itself performs the function that the external environment could perform for it. Thus, in these languages ​​the outer part of the spatial aspect is emphasized. And, conversely, in the Chinese language, when expressing grammatical meaning, the inner part is emphasized - an unmanifest, hidden property that needs to be supported by the external environment.

As shown above, the Russian and Arabic languages ​​emphasize the temporal aspect - the aspect associated with the lexical meaning of the verb, and therefore with its valence. Therefore, in these languages, the role of the external environment will be considered precisely when identifying the valence structure of the verb.

In Arabic, the dependent status of the word, through which the valency of the verb is realized, can be emphasized through the union of the verb and the addition into a common whole by means of a continuous spelling. Of course, this happens only in a situation that maximally promotes such a merger - when the valency of the verb is realized using pronouns, but this feature is completely uncharacteristic for other languages. In Arabic, he hit me / you / him, etc. are written in one word. As you can see from the following examples, the corresponding fused pronouns are attached to the verb ضَرَبَ (he) struck:

ضَرَبَنِي– he hit me

ضَرَبَكَ– he hit you (masculine)

ضَرَبَكِ– he hit you (feminine)

ضَرَبَهُ– he hit him, etc. [14, p. 34-36].

The elimination of the boundaries between the verb and its complement indicates that the awareness of the valence structure of the verb (to hit: someone, someone, something) is not sufficient and requires visual confirmation. Through this continuous spelling, the properties of the main word to attach dependent words to itself are expressed to a greater extent. Therefore, we can say that in the Arabic language the valence properties of the verb are transmitted relative to other languages ​​to a fairly large extent due to the external environment.

On the contrary, none of the words that implement the valency of the Russian verb ever merge with it in writing (for example, He hit him / her, He hit him / her / them). Comparison of the Russian and Arabic languages ​​in identifying the valence structure of the verb allows us to draw the following conclusions. The Arabic language accentuates the internal, the unmanifest, which is helped by the external, while the Russian language, on the contrary, emphasizes the external, contained in the most internal, private element.

So, we've covered all four options. We summarize them in the following table:

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As mentioned above, according to the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan, the so-called muscle mentality has been formed in China, and the skin mentality in the Western countries and Japan. Moreover, this science proves that muscle and skin vectors belong to the quartels of space. The muscle vector is the inner part of the space quarter, and the cutaneous one is its outer part.

In the Arab countries, the so-called anal mentality has developed, in Russia, the urethral one. The system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan proves that the anal vector is the inner part of the quarter of time, and the urethral is its outer part.

So, the linguistic facts show that the verbal properties of the languages ​​considered reflect the main features of the mentality of their speakers.

3. Actualization of nouns

As mentioned in paragraph 1, nouns occupy a very important place in the sentence - the second after the verb, and we assume that the features of their actualization indicate additional properties of the mentality.

There are two types of actualization of a noun as a dictionary concept.

1) The very act of inclusion in the context gives the vocabulary concept the form that the speaker has in mind. For example, in the Russian language, when the word book is included in the phrase This is a book that I told you about yesterday, the dictionary concept of a book, under the influence of context, takes the form of a certain individualized book for the interlocutor.

2) The context is not always felt as a sufficient means for the actualization of the vocabulary concept. Therefore, before being included in the context, a noun needs a special “adapter” that would translate this vocabulary concept into an actualized one in advance, that is, would give it in advance the form that the speaker has in mind. For example, as E. V. Andreeva notes, in French the opposition of definite and indefinite articles (le / un) indicates the definiteness or uncertainty of the referent: J 'ai lu un livre (I have read [some] book) / C' est le livre dont je vous ai parl é hier (This is [the same] book that I told you about yesterday). The opposition of indefinite / partial articles (un / du) creates a discreteness / non-discreteness distinction: C 'est un veau (This is a calf) / C' est du veau (This is veal).The opposition of the definite and partial articles (le / du) gives the concept the form of a total or partial referent: Mets le beurre dans le frigidaire (Put butter in the refrigerator) / Il mis du beurre sur startine (He smeared butter on a sandwich) [1, p. 264].

In some languages, nouns are actualized according to the first type, in others - according to the second. In the Japanese, Russian and Chinese languages, the article is absent, which means that for the actualization of nouns, these languages ​​only need a context in which the “formless” dictionary concept independently takes the necessary form. On the contrary, the presence of the article in Arabic and Western languages ​​indicates the insufficient ability of nouns to independently take the form of an actualized concept. Let's try to explain this fact.

As mentioned in note 6, according to Yuri Burlan's system-vector psychology, the Chinese have a muscular mentality, the Russians have a urethral-muscular mentality, and the Japanese have a musculocutaneous mentality. Thus, the peculiarities of the muscle mentality are to one degree or another inherent in all three of these countries. Let's consider how the presence of a muscle vector is related to the absence of an article in their languages.

System-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan proved that one of the distinctive properties of the muscle vector is the ability to take a given shape. That is why in the Russian, Japanese and Chinese languages ​​- languages ​​of peoples with a mentality possessing a muscle vector - a "shapeless" vocabulary concept is able to take the necessary form solely under the influence of context. Thus, due to the mental characteristics of the speakers of these languages, the latter do not seem to need an article. And, conversely, in Arabic and Western languages ​​- the languages ​​of those peoples whose mentality does not include a muscle vector - a vocabulary concept often needs an additional means - an article that gives it the form that the speaker has in mind. This explains the presence of the article in languages ​​such as, for example, English, German, French, Italian,Arab.

4. Influence of the language of neighboring peoples

As mentioned above, according to the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan, such aspects of reality as internal and external play a very important role in the human psyche. The close relationship of both aspects is manifested at different levels and in many phenomena. In particular, this is reflected in the fact that a person not only influences the external world, but is also influenced by external reality. We see the same thing with the formation of language. On the one hand, the people themselves, due to their inherent characteristic features, determine the features of the reality they create - their language. This reveals the role of the internal, influencing the external. But, on the other hand, people have the property of being influenced by the external environment. Therefore, when forming their language, they are also subject to the influence of other peoples and their languages.This reveals the role of the external, influencing the internal. Let us consider which of these two factors has a decisive advantage in the formation of the language.

We assume that those countries that make the most significant changes in external reality, most clearly manifesting themselves in any areas (science, technology, economics, politics, art, religion, etc.), as a rule, themselves influence the formation of their own language. That is why, as shown above, the languages ​​of Russia, Japan, China, England, America, France, Germany, Italy reflect the peculiarities of the mentality of these countries.

On the contrary, countries that manifest themselves in the world less vividly are influenced by other peoples in various areas of reality, including during the formation of their language. The language of such countries may reflect not the characteristic features of their mentality, but the peculiarities of the grammatical structure of the peoples with whom the interaction took place. So, for example, the grammatical structure of the Czech language, reflecting the peculiarities of the grammar of the Slavic peoples, does not bear the imprint of the skin mentality inherent in the Czech Republic.

The question of ancient languages ​​requires a separate study. It is possible that the mentality of their speakers has not yet formed and therefore could not be reflected in the grammatical structure of the language.

So, in this article we tried to show that the discoveries of the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan make it possible to explain the presence / absence in the language of such phenomena as the article, the system of complex verb forms, the continuous spelling of the verb and its complements. The properties of the psyche revealed by this science open up great opportunities for further study of the connection between the mentality of the people and their language, as well as for the study of other linguistic facts related to the human psyche.

List of references

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[1] Many linguists have pointed out the connection between language and thinking, for example, Yu. S. Maslov [9, p. 14].

[2] In all these phrases, we omit additions and circumstances, conveying only the very principle of constructing grammatical tenses: auxiliary verb + past participle.

[3] Our classification, based on the presence / absence of a system of complex verb forms, does not completely coincide with the generally accepted division of languages ​​into analytical and synthetic. Although in the traditional description of languages ​​the degree of synthesis is the main criterion, its application is limited to considering only the predominant expression of grammatical meanings [12, p. 167], rather than revealing the very fact of the presence / absence of a system of complex verb forms. The traditional criterion forcing to classify Japanese as a synthetic language does not allow us to represent the linguistic community of Japanese and Western languages ​​- the languages ​​of those peoples who have the same type of mentality.

[4] The sign "*" denotes the agrammatism of the phrase.

[5] The identification of psychotypes is based on such initial premises as the connection between the mental and the physical and the close interaction of a person with the surrounding reality. Z. Freud and V. Tolkachev correlate the properties of the psyche with those parts of the body that are in direct contact with the outside world. Since these are the eyes, ears, mouth, nose, urethra, anus, skin and umbilical cord, V. Tolkachev (following Z. Freud, who discovered the first vector) identifies all eight psychotypes: visual, sound, oral, olfactory, urethral, ​​anal, cutaneous and muscular. You can read about how all these discoveries were developed by Yu. Burlan [13] in the articles of his students [4; ten].

[6] Here we present only the main features of the mentality. Note that the mentality of Russia is not just urethral, ​​but urethral-muscular, and the mentality of Japan is not just skin but musculocutaneous.

[7] As for the auxiliary verbs, the grammatical information they express characterizes, of course, only the auxiliary verb itself, and not the entire complex verb form as a whole. For example, the auxiliary verb in Il mangé (He ate) indicates the third person, singular, present. And only in combination with the participle mangé, which expresses completeness, the complex verb form mangé expresses the precedence of the present, that is, the past tense.

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