Change of heroes on post-Soviet cinema and television screens in the light of the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan
More than 20 years ago in our country there was a sharp breakdown of landmarks: worldview, value, behavioral - both personal and social. All this was reflected on film and television screens, and the processes were interrelated …
In the collection of scientific works "Scientific discussion: issues of jurisprudence, philology, sociology, political science, philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, history, mathematics, medicine, art and architecture" (Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference, Moscow) published a socio-psychological research dedicated to the changes in the images of heroes on Russian cinema and television screens in the post-Soviet period. A detailed study of the processes affecting identity helps to identify the main trends in the development of Russian society. The analysis was carried out using a unique technique - system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan.
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Change of heroes on post-Soviet cinema and television screens in the light of the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan
More than 20 years ago in our country there was a sharp breakdown of landmarks: ideological, value, behavioral - both personal and social.
All this was reflected on film and television screens, and the processes were interrelated. As movie characters came from life, so many of them became role models in real life. This was especially important for the younger generation.
A person becomes a person, perceiving the patterns of thinking and behavior broadcast in society. Most often, various clichés, patterns, stereotypes are used for this, as a rule, they are already well-developed and easily digestible. Ideals also play an important role, as they have a significant impact on personal choice. They can be both individual and socially significant. There are various approaches to this issue.
A. Lorenzer interprets the concept of "cliché" as referring to the area of the unconscious, which, without losing its intentional and dynamic-energetic meaning, automatically works under certain conditions. At the same time, its significance is lost, and empty signs, devoid of emotional content, appear. "The dictate of figures of consciousness, separated from the reality of life, leads to the formation of a false idea of man and society about themselves, to the rupture of feedback." [33, p.332]
These processes have a certain specificity inherent in each society, according to its mentality. System-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan [23, C.97-102.], In particular, determines that the basis of the Russian character is the urethral-muscular mentality. And the formation of the Russian national character took place in a unique geopolitical landscape. [31, C.199-206.]  
Systemic reasons for the change in screen types against the background of global social processes
In actual socialization, a person constantly unconsciously tries on everything that he observes around him. What suits him and what does not. Much also depends on the natural qualities inherent in each individual person. Depending on the innate mental, the information circulating in the society is also perceived.
For millennia, the main way of broadcasting stereotypes has been oral-visual. At the same time, information spread rather slowly, strictly dosed and was not available to everyone. With the invention of printing, the accelerated dissemination and popularization of various kinds of knowledge began. The situation changed dramatically in the twentieth century, especially the emergence of new information technologies. Today, society is literally choking on the huge and rapid flow of information. Best of all, these realities are coped with by people who naturally have a skin vector , with the proper degree of development.
At the same time, the values of the skin vector are contradictory in relation to the urethral-muscular mentality of the Russian society, which explains to a large extent the presence of completely contradictory styles of behavior in Russian sociocultural stereotypes up to the beginning of the 20th century: either very sublime, noble, or completely marginal, even deviant. behavior. The main genres of folk art: songs where they sing about robbers (the owners, most often, of the skin , sometimes urethral vector ), or the lives of the saints, glorifying the departure from the mortal world (sound vector). [one]
These traditions continued in classical Russian literature, which took the place of religion in the public consciousness. It should be noted that literacy in Russia was rather low until the October Revolution, so battles for minds took place on a very narrow field. Nevertheless, the results are still impressive. When analyzing the main positive characters of the great Russian literature, it turns out that among them there are practically no successfully realized ones. [5, p. 237]
Comfort as a value has always been rejected, on the one hand, by the elite culture represented in Russia by a unique social phenomenon - the Russian intelligentsia; on the other, the main force is the muscular peasantry.
Then in literature it was impossible to find the topic of real activity, where the heroes themselves were responsible for their own destiny. Russian heroes self-identified from the opposite: how not to do it. Their energy was aimed at destroying the old, not creating the new.
During the Soviet period, attempts were made to change the situation. A new work ethic was formed, in which many films about the working class and the peasantry played an important role. [20. C.42] The main characters of the labor front during this period were mainly the owners of the anal vector  - hardworking, honest, decent, achieving high quality with their meticulousness and perfectionism, fully realizing themselves in production. It was on such heroes that Soviet cinema was oriented.
But then came another phase of the development of society, where skin values predominate, the heroes of the day were people who were previously tried for speculation with economic crimes, the owners of the skin vector, bright, but remaining in the archetype, which was often due to Soviet realities. It should be noted that these heroes were not perceived by the urethral-muscular mentality of Russians in a positive sense. In the post-perestroika period, one after another, works appeared in which Soviet myths were overthrown, but others were proposed, of an exclusively apocalyptic mood.  
What was happening then in the audiovisual arts can be assessed in different ways. Thus, the classic of Soviet cinema I. Pyriev, argued that, “unlike many bourgeois, and especially Hollywood films, in which the heroes are recruited from among the people of the“upper class”, and more often from among gangsters and prostitutes (owners of an undeveloped skin vector - N.B.), the heroes of Soviet films, first of all, people of struggle and labor, morally stable, pure, purposeful (owners of a developed anal vector - N.B). [24, C.2]
After all, the main characteristic of almost all the heroes of Soviet cinema, especially positive ones, was professional: engineers, doctors, workers, collective farmers, etc. The screens were filled with production dramas, where there was a serious discussion of the problems of labor conscience and honor ("Battle on the Road" 1961, " Award "1974," We the undersigned "1981 - the list goes on for quite some time). And this is not surprising, because it was generally recognized that "the main measure of a person's value is the benefit that he brings to the people" [8, C.4], "in Soviet society one cannot live without labor, without respect, without love for people." [16, p. 13.]
But just three decades later, a very luxuriantly spreading cranberry, which was so fiercely branded, blossomed violently on the Russian screen. No one understood what to do with the absolute freedom that suddenly came, which they had been seeking for a long time. If in the first post-Soviet year 238 films and 15 TV series were shot, then already in 1996, the most "disastrous" year, there were only 43 films and 11 television works. 
If we add to this that many of them were never shown to a wide audience, then we can say that the identification images and anchors for the Russian viewer were given almost entirely to the same “branded” Hollywood, whose far from the best samples were bought cheaply by our own Russian distributors.
At the turn of the century, having lived for a decade in conditions of absolute ideological freedom, the Russian creative intelligentsia also modeled situations where “everything new, even if it is the best, is perceived as the worst, unnecessary, negative. Like an absolute deception. They do not trust the new, they do not even try to believe, and therefore they are afraid. " [14, C.5]
Finally, replacing the incessant lamentations, “litanies” [25, C.47], new models of understanding reality are presented, which we most often see in the mass media, television, and especially clearly in advertising. These attempts, for the most part, are downright helpless; they can rightly be attributed to surrogates, aggressive and supplanting genuine art. “However, limited by their limits, they (surrogates - NB) are not only necessary, but also useful. They fulfill a broad educational role and are, as it were, the first step on the way to mastering the language of art. " [19, C.187]
The basic group of actors, business people, acting on Russian cinema and television screens, is closely related to various aspects of crime. At the beginning of the new millennium, Russian audiences were overwhelmed by a general "dark" stream, where robbers and swindlers, girls-boys "on call", rockers, basements, morgues, bandits, "cops", devastated night streets acted. The directors rush from eccentricity ("Barabaniada" by S. Ovcharov) into quasi-Soviet aesthetics ("Children of the cast-iron gods" by T. Toth). In the latter, the beloved hero of Soviet cinema - steelmaker Ignat, with a pronounced muscle vector , in the workshop of a huge factory, clearly a defense industry, fights fire and metal every day, and in the evenings he also seriously and fiercely participates in mass fights and drinking bouts. The director is watching all thiswith an anal desire for picture perfection and visual love for her. The film images are painfully familiar: bronze muscles and open, smiling faces of workers, gray-haired general designers, directors of factories with a sick heart and colossal efficiency.
The working class, the largest muscle-vector population, the "salt of the earth", is rarely seen on the big screen. Of the significant projects, one can name only "Magnetic Storms" by V. Abdrashitov in 2003, where during the entire film one brutalized crowd of workers beat another.
Another type of hero is reflective intellectuals, for the most part, anal-visual, who do not find themselves in new conditions: the provincial poet Makarov ("Makarov", S. Makovetsky), who on occasion bought a pistol "Makarov" and for some reason imagined that weapons can solve all accumulated problems at once; the aggressive and restless "sixties" A. Abdulov ("Over the dark water" by D. Meskhiev), leaving this life without finally choosing anything; engineer Zhenya Timoshin ("You are the only one" by D. Astrakhan), who suddenly realized his uselessness "at the celebration of life", where neither sincere feelings nor heated debates about the sublime are needed, and more recently a respectable "average family of intellectual work" does not live, but exists hopelessly and humiliatingly.
But in the next film by D. Astrakhan with the program name "Everything will be fine" the same A. Zbruev plays an absolutely skin-like character, easily adapting to any circumstances, but developed and realized, therefore, who knows how to achieve his goal and direct his energy not only to narrowly personal goals … Once an ordinary boy returns to his native provincial town 20 years later, a millionaire with his son who became a Nobel laureate … Happiness flows like a river, most often in the skin sense: comfort, success, everything that can be found in a kaleidoscope of soap operas. But … the film has not lost its psychotherapeutic role even today. How little, it turns out, is needed "in order to quench the thirst that lives in man at all times to see the stability and harmony of the world, to feel involved in the mythical domination of universal human values." [four]
Against this background, the increased attention of Russians to thieves and prison life acquires the features of a social order. Underdeveloped, frustrated, even marginalized owners of the skin vector fit into the new phase of development much better than those with anal or muscle vectors. It must be remembered that the traditions in this regard were solid, beloved: "Gentlemen of Fortune", "Kalina Krasnaya", "The meeting place cannot be changed." The film “Lube Zone” by D. Svetozarov and the TV series “Zone” by P. Stein, filmed as a “reality show” based on shocking stories recorded by scriptwriters in real prisons, zones, prisons, and transfer points throughout the country … And suddenly it was discovered, as Dovlatov wrote, “an amazing similarity between the camp and the will … We spoke the same rough language.They sang the same sentimental songs. We were undergoing the same hardships … We were very similar and even interchangeable. Almost any inmate was good enough to be a guard. Almost any warden deserved to be jailed. " [thirteen]
This interest has deep historical roots, since for several centuries, it was "robber songs" that were one of the most significant socio-cultural clichés: they "generally reveal a sympathetic attitude towards robbers: the people saw in them freedom-loving daredevils, capable at times of outbursts of generosity."  This is the effect of the urethral-muscular mentality, in which the formation of the Russian society took place.
Quite adequate in this context are the “new Russians” of the provincials who are successful in the capital (“Limit” by D. Evstigneev), closely associated with “mafia structures”, an intellectual with a knife, a pistol and a master key (“Maestro-Thief” by V. Shamshurin) - one of the basic mythological characters in post-Soviet cinema, strange inhabitants of the "Country of the Deaf" by V. Todorovsky. This list can be very long, but all of its representatives are the owners of the skin vector.
There are also new faces in post-Soviet Russia - organizers and creators of their own company / campaign. The first swallow "Goryachev and others", which is still remembered on Internet forums and voting on sites dedicated to cinema and TV.  Director Y. Belenky, who stood at the origins of the Russian soap factory, still believes that the current technology was created on this 35-episode film (1992-1994).  And, indeed, many plot moves will meet again and again.
Noble rich people do not appear on Russian screens very often. A prosperous businessman is the owner of a well-developed and realized skin vector. For a long time in our country there were no conditions for such a legitimate implementation. Max Weber also identified the entrepreneur as an outsider. “Its approval was by no means peaceful. The abyss of mistrust, sometimes hatred, above all moral indignation, has always met a supporter of new trends; we often know of a number of such cases - even real legends about the dark spots of his past were created. " [6, p. 88] The most striking image of such an outsider, brilliant, outstanding, ambiguous, “tenacious, passionate, obsessed …, and of course charming” Platon Makovsky performed by V. Mashkov (“Oligarch” by P. Lungin, 2002). This epic saga  about life and love in Russia at that time of change,what irreversibly changed the country, all of us, the saga of easy money, the main value of the skin phase of development, how they are earned and what you have to pay for it - love, friendship, your own life … This story fits too well into the eternal Russian philosophy that any wealth is unjust, in line with the aspirations of the “common Soviet man” to have guaranteed social protection from the state, rather than take the risk of high earnings. [28, C.298]in line with the aspirations of the “common Soviet man” to have guaranteed social protection from the state, rather than take the risk of high earnings. [28, C.298]in line with the aspirations of the “common Soviet man” to have guaranteed social protection from the state, rather than take the risk of high earnings. [28, C.298]
The images of the oligarchs are in no way given to Russian artists. D. Hoffman writes that Russian oligarchs are closely studying the books of Theodore Dreiser, that, not knowing how to behave, our VIPs adopted the American “style and methods of robber barons, copying their brazen style, cold self-confidence, daring gambits and expensive quirks ". [30, C.348] Skin ambitions, multiplied by the urethral mentality, gave a very peculiar hybrids, embodied on the screens.
There is one more type - various and numerous images of "sovereign people" of various levels and ranks, who casually break human lives (grotesque "Hammer and Sickle" by S. Livnev, retro-drama "Burnt by the Sun" by N. Mikhalkov), deal with talented, albeit played by young people (“What a wonderful game” by P. Todorovsky), naive Russian emigrants (“East-West” by R. Varnier), brazenly robbing those who returned from the next local war (“Alive” by A. Veledinsky).
An alternative is stamped endless police series: "Streets of Broken Lanterns", "Cops", "Gangster Petersburg", "National Security Agent", "Kamenskaya", "Turetsky's March". But here the same heroes with the skin vector, which have received normal development, are implemented properly, defending order and law. Standing between life and death, protecting ordinary people from non-human criminals, the heroes in each episode win at least a small victory. And even if the artistic merit of these series is not very high, it does not matter, it is important that they are all here - their own, relatives. Another sign of anal-muscle perception of reality.
Relatives can even be murderers, because their own - like the popularly adored killer Danila Bagrov ("Brother", "Brother-2" by A. Balabanov), endowed with a complex vector set: anal-skin-muscular, played by an incredibly charming, not even an actor, but the real "Moscow prince", who, moreover, has upper vectors, visual  and sound  - Sergei Bodrov Jr.
After the police serials, telecasts from the life of "office plankton" acquire superpopularity: "Do not be born beautiful", "Daughters-mothers", "Always say always", on the big screen the unassuming rom-com "Peter-FM" at the same time overtakes the heavyweights in rental fees with brutal heroes, shootings, chases, such as "Piranha Hunt", "Peregon", "Zhmurki"  and many others. This is just evidence of growing into the skin phase of development, the fact that the people are tired of shocks, looking for such heroes with the help of whom one can understand everyday everyday life.
According to the theory of N. Hove and I. Strauss, our movie heroes are now in a transitional period - “late autumn”, then “winter” will follow, generation “Y” will come. [29, C.17] From the point of view of the system-vector psychology of Yuri Burlan, now more than ever the qualities inherent in developed and realized vectors are needed, for example:
-cutaneous vector: the ability to organize, establish economic and industrial relations, easily adapt to the modern skin phase of the development of society;
-the visual vector: the spread of universal human values of culture;
-sound vector: the spiritual component of the movement from egoistic consumption “in oneself” to creative action “outward”;
-urethral vector: mercy, priority of collective goals over their own private comfort; and so on.
We need new heroes, incl. and on the screen.
“Before, society decided for him what to do, but he only decided how; now he is forced to decide what and how. Therefore, the hero has no past - to create the world anew, you need to cross out what was. There is a future, only it is unclear”
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