Bureaucracy in Russia: Cope with Arbitrariness
The bureaucratic power, which should serve the people, begins to parasitize on it. After all, the bureaucracy itself does not produce anything, but only helps to distribute public goods. But being isolated, turning into a closed self-sufficient structure, it makes life extremely difficult for those who should make this life easier, for whom it is created.
Bureaucracy and bureaucracy - what's the difference?
The word "bureaucracy" evokes a negative reaction from the majority of the population, which periodically encounters such phenomena as red tape; waiting in long queues to get the required form and information; unsuccessful attempts to get a solution to any issue from the authorities and administration; an abundance of paperwork, replacing real necessary actions to improve the living conditions of society. However, the very phenomenon of "bureaucracy" is not something negative; rather, it is natural in a society where there is a centralization of power.
By definition, “bureaucracy” (from French bureau - office and Greek kratos - power) is a management system based on a vertical hierarchy and designed to perform tasks assigned to it in the most efficient way”(www.investments.academic.ru). It occurs in any country where all management is concentrated in the hands of central government authorities.
Now the concept of "bureaucracy" is used much more broadly - when describing the way of managing any large firm or corporation in which there is a large and ramified staff of managing managers. In this regard, such concepts as "corporate bureaucracy", "church bureaucracy", "trade union bureaucracy" and others arose.
Another thing is "bureaucracy", which is a consequence of the ineffective work of the bureaucratic system and leads to an excessive complexity of clerical procedures and a large waste of time. The reasons for this phenomenon can be both objective (management complexity) and subjective (the desire to play it safe, hidden extortion). In the latter case, the bureaucratic power, which should serve the people, begins to parasitize on it. After all, the bureaucracy itself does not produce anything, but only helps to distribute public goods. But being isolated, turning into a closed self-sufficient structure, it makes life extremely difficult for those who should make this life easier, for whom it is created.
Bureaucracy and bureaucracy. System analysis
A systematic view of the problem of bureaucracy and bureaucracy allows us to see that this phenomenon is entirely due to the existence of a skin measure in society. Back in the early 1900s, the German sociologist Max Weber formulated the concept of rational bureaucracy, which has become one of the most useful ideas in the social sciences. He offered rather a model of bureaucracy, the main elements of which were completely based (from the point of view of system-vector psychology) on the values of the skin measure, which, in fact, organizes the entire system of governance in society, creates a clear structure of power, naturally supporting the urethral leader with this structure (a charismatic personality capable of rallying a human flock around him).
First of all, according to Max Weber, the work of each member of the bureaucratic system should be based on clear rules that are designed to make the entire management process the most effective and rational, to protect clients from the arbitrariness of officials, that is, bureaucracy. Here such values of the skin vector as regulation, efficiency, rationalization of any process are manifested.
The second element of Max Weber's bureaucratic model is the impersonality of relationships, both between members of the bureaucratic structure and in its external interactions. According to this principle, the selection of officials and managers should be carried out not on the basis of personal affections and sympathies, but only on the basis of the professionalism and competence of the candidate. The skin vector always maintains a distance in a relationship, not allowing one to be based on feelings, but only on the principle of the greatest benefit and benefit for the cause. "Business and nothing personal" is a favorite saying of a skin manager.
Specialization and division of labor in a bureaucratic system, when responsibilities and areas of activity are clearly defined for each employee, are also the influence of the skin vector. Individualism, division of labor, standardization are the principles of organizing any process by skin measure.
And finally, the clear vertical hierarchy inherent in any bureaucratic company and described by Max Weber reflects the natural hierarchy that exists in the animal pack and still determines the life of human society. It is a pyramid, at the base of which is a majority ruled by a minority at the higher rungs of the hierarchical ladder. As already mentioned, at the very top of this pyramid is the urethral leader, and the lower positions in management in relation to him are occupied by skin commanders, middle-level leaders who form the basis of the bureaucratic system. It is for them that all the principles described above are true.
Bureaucracy - what is it? Human factor
This is the ideal model for an effective bureaucratic system. But why is it not always so effective in reality? The increasing complexity of society, the processes of its management, the development of the economy lead to an even greater increase in the influence of the bureaucratic system. The larger the structure that needs to be managed, the more it requires a staff of managers and the number of rules according to which it operates. In addition, the main negative factor that makes the bureaucratic system complex, clumsy, and riddled with corruption is, as always, human. Let's take a closer look at why.
Social scientists describe three main problems that arise from the existence of a bureaucratic form of government. This is alienation from man, ritualism and inertia. Let's add to this, of course, the problem of corruption, which in the minds of people is already firmly associated with the position of a government official, although this is not always the case. Of course, how efficiently and accurately the management system works, even the best, depends on people, their vectors and the degree of their development.
The reasons for bureaucracy. Undeveloped skin
The problem of alienating the control system from a person is a stereotyped approach to a person, without taking into account his individual needs, an attitude towards him as to the next “business”. Of course, this is a consequence of the influence of impersonality and the standard approach of a person with a not very developed skin vector, who is inclined to economize on any of his actions. It's easier to take a long-proven instruction and follow it than to try to grasp the essence of the problem.
The problem of corruption, the use of an official position for personal gain in order to receive bribes, extortion is also a "skin" problem. A developed leather man will never break the law. The undeveloped, remaining in the archetype (at the level of development of primitive man), strives to pull together everything that is bad. A "warm" place in the system of distribution of material wealth is the ultimate dream of such an archetypal leatherman, where he can easily enrich himself.
Since in Russia the skin measure at all times could not develop alongside the urethral mentality opposite to it in values, the problem of corruption of bureaucratic power among officials is very acute. Archetypal skin is the reason that in the minds of Russians the position of an official, a bureaucrat is firmly associated with the concept of “corrupt”.
The reasons for bureaucracy. Anal stupor
Bureaucracy is a rather cumbersome system that has many levels, which, of course, will not do without executors who would perform rather routine paper and clerical work that requires care, accuracy, perseverance, and scrupulousness. For such work, representatives of the anal vector are best suited. It is they who are engaged in office work, document management, and reporting. And it is precisely in their properties that the causes of such problems as ritualism and the inertia of the bureaucratic system are found.
They are inclined to accumulate past experience, follow traditions, resist innovations, they get used to a certain system of doing business, established over the years, and it is very difficult to rebuild on a new track. The desire at any cost to preserve the order established in the institution, complexity, detailing, passing through numerous instances and make the bureaucratic system so inertial, with difficulty reacting to rapid changes in society, especially in the current rapid skin phase of human development. There is even a special term - "bureaucratic ritualism", preoccupation with rules and regulations to the detriment of achieving the goal for which the business was started.
Assertive skin commanders demand from their performers a quick reaction, instant restructuring, but clumsy anal sexes in such a situation fall into stress, which is expressed in stupor, loss of the ability to think. This leads to a lot of mistakes, rework and a sense of deep dissatisfaction in anal professionals who are used to doing everything perfectly.
Bureaucracy and bureaucracy in Russia
Despite the widespread opinion that Russia is a country of bureaucrats, the number of officials in our country is much lower than in the developed countries of Europe. According to RIA Novosti, “rumors of a high level of bureaucratization in Russia are greatly exaggerated” (www.ria.ru). According to a study by experts from the Center for Economic Research "RIA-Analytica", the lowest level of bureaucratization is observed, oddly enough, in Moscow and St. Petersburg, where there are 44 and 50 civil and municipal employees, respectively, per 10 thousand people. This is with the average Russian figure of 67 officials. Isn't it an amazing discovery?
Comparing with Western countries, we have about 250 civil servants for the same 10 thousand population in Romania, about 300 in Germany and Norway, about 350 in the USA, and about 400 people employed in the civil service in France (that is, officials in France in 6 times more than in Russia, relative to the population, of course).
In addition to the fact that in some regions of our country there really is a shortage of civil service workers, in our country there is also a problem of ineffective work of the bureaucratic system, bureaucracy. What is the reason for this? Again, with the fact that, in its essence, bureaucracy is the product of a skin measure, the opposite of our urethral mentality. We are not mentally limited and do not like to obey the law. The strict adherence to the rules that is implied in the bureaucratic system is alien to us. That is why the bureaucracy in Russia has always been different from that in the West.
In the 1920s – 1930s, a new type of bureaucracy was formed in the USSR, which differed from the European bureaucracy - the nomenclature - which nevertheless absorbed all the qualities of the Russian bureaucracy. During the reign of olfactory Stalin, an official's career depended not on business qualities, but on the official's political loyalty, his adherence to the party. And in the days of his successors - from personal connections, which, of course, did not contribute to the quality of management.
Russians tend to create informal relationships, even in power. The basis for Russian nepotism is the complementarity of the urethral mentality to the anal values of family and friendship. That is why, when hiring in the apparatus of power, in Russia they often look not at professionalism, but at the presence of connections. We have already spoken about the reasons for Russian corruption.
Russian bureaucracy and consumer society
At present, attempts are being made in Russia to make the bureaucratic system more efficient. For this purpose, information technologies are widely used, which involve facilitating the access of the population to public services, reducing paperwork.
However, in fact, with the ever increasing computerization of the management process, for some reason there is an increase in the number of officials, and the shaft of reporting and paperwork only increases. This is especially true in the fields of education and health care, where new management methods have already formalized the process of communication with the client so much that the quality of service suffers. For example, 15 minutes are allocated for a patient's appointment, during which the doctor must have time to enter all his data into an electronic card, so there is no time left for an examination. Control of each step, the need to fill out a huge number of reporting documents make bureaucrats out of specialists. Bureaucracy pervades professional areas, where the quality of services suffers greatly from it.
Of course, similar side effects of bureaucracy are observed in the West, but in our country they cause particular rejection. Mentally we are closer when the center of our aspirations is a person, his needs and requirements. For us, the general is more important than the personal, and all these regulatory delays cause only irritation.
That is why when we adopt the latest Western control technologies, they do not work for us. Total control over the quality of work, punishment with the ruble does not make us want to follow the law. A Russian person can be influenced only by awakening in him responsibility for others. Only this finds a response in his heart and a desire to act for the good of society.
Therefore, efforts to achieve effective management should be made not in the sphere of applying the latest Western management technologies, but in the psychological sphere, revealing to our people the truth about their mentality and the enormous potential inherent in their mental.
In late Soviet times, when the archetypal bureaucratic nomenclature was decaying, the people continued to live the life of society, doing their job conscientiously, for the good of the whole, without any Western technologies of effective management. A correctly built ideology, which turned out to be consonant with our mentality, helped us create a strong and economically developed state with a weak and ineffective bureaucratic system. These are the lessons of the past that we can turn to now.
But it is much more important for us today, based on a new system-vector understanding of ourselves and our place in the historical process, to get out of the protracted stress of following someone else's western path and finally find a fulcrum for the urethral jerk "behind the flags" - into the society of the future … Together with everything the world.