Why everyone was a hero in the rear. The mystery of the invincible Russians
Thinking about this time, you never cease to be amazed - how did people survive in such conditions? Why is there such double-strength in them, such a powerful, unkillable force? How could they not think about themselves, about their family, completely giving all of themselves to this hellish work? I thought the time was different, the needs were small - simple people, not spoiled by wealth and comfort …
My ancestors did not fight on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. And yet, when on May 9 we remember the feat of the Russian people in this war, I have reason to be proud - my grandfather Ilya Ivanovich Ageev worked permanently in the rear in the small Ural town of Sukhoi Log, Sverdlovsk region, making his contribution to victory.
Our city is industrial. Before the war, a cement plant worked there, where my grandfather worked as a locomotive driver. Just before the start of the war, he underwent an operation to remove his appendicitis, and he was not drafted into the army with the first mass conscription. He was one of the few men left in the factory. Even the hard work of the fireman's assistant was done by a woman beside him.
Then he was taken several times to the recruiting station, but immediately returned back: there was no one to work. At home, the family - a wife and three children - survived as best they could, eating cakes made from powdered potato skins. My mother, three or four years old, almost starved to death.
They worked at the plant around the clock, allocating little time for sleep and meager food. My grandfather did not come home - there were no replacements. There was nowhere to wash and wash clothes, and the trousers and quilted jacket, oiled and soaked with coal dust (the locomotive was fired with coal), turned into a heavy, rigid robe.
And so the whole war, without days off and holidays. Only once was my grandfather brought home when he was completely exhausted and swollen from hunger. His legs were so swollen that he had to cut his trousers to undress him. There was nothing to eat at home either. After a little rest, the grandfather returned to the plant.
Life in the rear during the war did not stop and did not stop. Moreover, it has become more active. As if a second wind opened in people, a hidden potential that was dormant in peacetime. During the war years, a new non-ferrous metal processing plant was even built in Sukhoy Log, and military equipment, damaged during the fighting, was transported there in echelons for melting into metal.
Thinking about this time, you never cease to be amazed - how did people survive in such conditions? Why is there such double-strength in them, such a powerful, unkillable force? How could they not think about themselves, about their family, completely giving all of themselves to this hellish work? I thought the time was different, the needs were small - simple people, not spoiled by wealth and comfort.
And yet, I found the solution to this force at the training of Yuri Burlan "System-vector psychology". It lies in the mentality of our people.
Unpredictability and responsiveness. Lightning industry evacuation
The Russian mentality is determined by the combination of the urethral and muscle vector. It was formed in the conditions of the endless expanses of Russia, and therefore the Russian person is not limited, broad-minded, generous. There is a lot of him, and his strength of mind is powerful.
In a cold and unpredictable climate, it was impossible to put life on an established track. Frosts, floods, droughts could destroy the entire crop in an instant and leave the population without food. Famine has always threatened the inhabitants of our vast country. To survive, it required ingenuity, a quick mind, lightning-fast reaction, unpredictability, a breakthrough for the flags. All these qualities have been developed over the centuries and have been demonstrated more than once in difficult times for Russia. Including at the very beginning of the war, when the industry had to be evacuated to the East. We are able to survive in inhuman conditions like no other.
Hitlerite Germany, of course, knew that a significant part of the industrial potential of the USSR (more than 80%) was concentrated in the West of the country, not far from the border. Therefore, a plan of lightning war was developed, according to which it was necessary to quickly capture the European part of the country, which would force the population to surrender in the future without a fight. The Nazis did not take into account one thing - fortitude. The people not only did not intend to surrender, but in the shortest possible time, literally from under the nose of the fascist army, evacuated large factories and other industrial facilities.
Already on June 29, 1941, the Directive of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was issued to the party organizations of the front-line region, which outlined the main provisions for transferring the economy to a war footing. It was about the evacuation of factories to the East, the transition to the production of military equipment (increase in its production by a quarter), the construction of new military-industrial facilities.
Emergency measures were also identified: vacations were canceled, mandatory overtime work and an 11-hour working day were introduced. The movement of speedmen was organized, in which the norms were exceeded by 2-3 times and related professions were quickly mastered.
On July 3, 1941, Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin spoke on the radio and formulated a slogan that determined the life of people in the rear for the long five years of war: "Everything for the front, everything for victory!" He touched the most important string in the soul of the Russian person - the ability to bestow, to feat, self-sacrifice in order for the country to survive. This is the property of the urethral person - not to think about himself, saving his flock. Such is the character of the people with the urethral mentality. That is why millions of Soviet people made this appeal their motto, the only thought that led them to victory in these terrible years.
In 1941-1942, the factories were transported as planned and in the shortest possible time, primarily to the Urals - the forge of the USSR, as well as to the Volga region and Western Siberia, Central Asia and Kazakhstan. In the fall of 1941, 1,500 factories and ten million specialists were transported. People began to work in field conditions, without even waiting for a roof over their heads.
Only 25% of highly qualified specialists were exempted from mobilization to the front. Of course, they had a lot of experience. But at the new location, they had to start production from scratch, literally in the open air, because there were no suitable premises yet, adjust equipment and train new workers, usually women and children.
Only Russian people could cope with such a task: in conditions of incredible hardships, to think exclusively about setting up production for the front. The Russian person is not demanding in everyday life, far from a comfortable life. Just as our distant ancestor could sleep in the middle of a wide steppe, wrapped in a caftan, so the heroes of the home front not only survived in the cold and hunger, but also strengthened the power and defense of the country.
Often, the evacuation took place in an incredibly tight timeframe, and in a fantastic volume. For example, when the Germans approached Zaporozhye on August 20, 1941, part of the workers of the Zaporizhstal metallurgical plant went to defend the city, and part of them urgently began to load equipment into wagons and send them to the East. In just 45 days of evacuation of the plant, 18 thousand cars were dispatched. Sometimes it took 750-800 loaded railway platforms a day. And it was not only equipment, but also raw materials - almost 4 thousand tons. The last carriages were sent on October 2, literally a few hours before the arrival of the Nazis.
The evacuation of industry was in itself a feat unparalleled in history.
Mass heroism. Collective farmer, scientist, actress …
Let the noble rage
Boil up like a wave -
There is a war of the people, the
During the war, everyone became heroes. In all spheres of the life of a huge country, people worked to the end - be it agriculture, science or culture. And the pages of the military annals of individual cities - Brest, Leningrad, Stalingrad - will forever remain an example of mass heroism and self-sacrifice of the Russian people.
Heroism is a quality of a person with a urethral vector and a urethral mentality, conditioned by his desire to save the lives of those for whom he is responsible. Even at the cost of your own life. The Russian man is muscularly docile and good-natured - for the time being, until they awakened rage in him, encroaching on the most valuable thing he has - his native land.
In a rage, he is terrible - he will smash and destroy the enemy until complete victory. It's not a pity to give my life for the Motherland, because without the Motherland there is no me. In such a state, the one WE is especially strongly felt in him, and he thinks like one person, acts like one person. In the fire of war, individuality, the separate self, is lost.
The difficult situation at the beginning of the war was in agriculture: about half of the cultivated area and livestock fell into the hands of the invaders. Men of military age went to the army. In many villages there are no more men under 50–55 years old. Tractor drivers were retrained into tankers. Therefore, women got behind the wheel of the tractor. In agriculture, they were in the majority - up to 71%. The rest are old people and teenagers. Among the women's tractor brigades, competitions were organized, in which 150 thousand women took part in 1942.
Agricultural workers worked 300 days a year - this was the minimum workday rate. All food and raw materials that were produced in state and collective farms were completely surrendered to the state and sent to the army. The collective farmers themselves survived exclusively at the expense of their gardens, although they also had to be taxed.
Scientists and inventors did not lag behind and continued to work hard in the evacuation. Raw materials were needed for the production of metals. New deposits were discovered in Kazakhstan, Central Asia, in the South Urals to replace those lost in the western part of the country. The development of new oil deposits began in Bashkiria and Tatarstan.
Military equipment was constantly being improved, so technologies were needed that would make it possible to create new models of tanks, aircraft, other military equipment, and increase labor productivity.
Read about the feat of cultural and art workers in the articles “The Siege of the Hermitage. The art of staying human”,“Soviet cinema during the war”.
Mass heroism. Women, children, old people
“I will never forget the women of those years. Hundreds of them came to the factory, did the most difficult male work, stood in lines for hours and raised children, did not bend under the weight of grief when the funeral service arrived for her husband, son or brother. They were real heroines of the labor front, worthy of admiration."
Metallurgist E. O. Paton
Since there were almost no men left in the rear, by the Directive of the Council of People's Commissars of 1941, the entire working population from 16 to 60 years old was mobilized to the labor front. Already in the second half of 1941, almost two million women, teenagers and pensioners came to work at the factories.
Boys and girls worked on assembly lines. When they turned twelve, they were allowed to the machines and on the assembly line for military equipment. Children of the besieged Leningrad defused tens of thousands of bombs dropped from bombers onto roofs, extinguished fires in the city, were on duty at night in 30-degree frosts on towers, carried water from the Neva …
The heroism of the home front workers is equated to the heroism of the direct participants in the battles for the Motherland. Without their labor, the country would not have survived, and the army would not have won.
Dash for flags. High speed traffic
Skin competition is unusual for a Russian person. He needs to go beyond the flags - further, higher, beyond the boundaries of the possible. He can not only catch up, but also significantly overtake, because he is given more energy than others. The movement of high-speed workers to master high-speed methods of labor arose during the second five-year plan (1933 - 1937), and during the war years it became widespread.
It was not only the desire to achieve unsurpassed labor results that helped, but also the natural urethral collectivism. The movement acquired the motto "Work not only for yourself, but also for a comrade who went to the front." Dvuhsotniki fulfilled two norms per shift. And the milling machine operator of the Uralvagonzavod Dmitry Filippovich Barefoot founded the movement of thousands of people. He invented a device that made it possible to process several parts at a time on one machine, and in February 1942 he fulfilled the norm by 1480%.
Arseny Dmitrievich Korshunov worked as a highly qualified electric welder at a plant in besieged Leningrad. The whole besieged city knew him, because by his example he inspired many not only to survive, but to do the impossible to win.
He repaired KV tanks, welded the hulls of armored personnel carriers and mines. He did not approach work indifferently, but with ingenuity. This helped him make several adaptations that greatly increased productivity. In October 1942, he steadily increased the production rate, starting with 15 daily rates and reaching 32 rates per day!
Hard work led to the exacerbation of an old disease - tuberculosis. Right in the shop, his throat started bleeding, and he was taken to the factory first-aid post, where he was prescribed bed rest. However, Arseny refused to be hospitalized, knowing that the result of the work of the entire workshop depends on his work. Therefore, the very next day he went to work to the welding machine.
Korshunov not only survived, but in 1943 he was awarded the medal "For the Defense of Leningrad", in 1944 - the Order "Badge of Honor", and after the war - the medal "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War." Arseny Korshunov lived until 1971, having worked until the end of his life at his native plant. A hero, not a man!
Another speed hero is Vera Pavlovna Belikhova from the Adyghe village of Chekhrakh. From 1943 to 1946, she constantly collected huge yields of southern hemp - up to 6.5 tons per hectare, while the rate per hectare was 7 centners! In 1947 she was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor.
Mercy and justice. Stay human
Sister and brother … By mutual faith
We were doubly strong.
We went to love and mercy
In that merciless war.
It is noteworthy that in inhuman conditions people did not lose their human appearance, but retained their moral qualities. The moral search has always accompanied the Russian people. The guarantor of deep morality was the Russian intelligentsia, the elite Russian culture, which could only be formed under the conditions of the urethral mentality.
But the main distinguishing features of the Russian person, as a bearer of a unique mentality (the only one in the world), is mercy and justice, which especially manifested themselves during the war years. The victors were merciful to the vanquished - prisoners of war, the people of Germany. In the cities liberated from the Nazis, looting and violence were strictly suppressed.
The rear also had their own examples of Russian generosity and generosity. The population actively helped the wounded and migrants from the western regions of the USSR, although they themselves often had nothing to eat. Sometimes they tore a piece from their own hungry children.
Somehow an immigrant came into my grandmother's house and asked for something to eat. Despite the fact that she had three children, she shared with him what she had - potato peel cakes.
Another episode from family memories. The house, which the grandfather's family moved to after the war, was built by captured German soldiers. They were not escorted to the place of work, lived like an ordinary local population, moved freely around the city, looked well-fed and neatly dressed. None of the local population showed hatred or mistrust towards them.
On the territory of the Soviet Union, a unique community of peoples has formed, a strong alloy of more than a hundred nationalities that have preserved their culture and traditions. One Russian people, united by a common mentality, which has no analogues anywhere in the world. At the front, a Russian and a Ukrainian, a Kazakh and a Byelorussian, a Georgian and a Kirghiz fought shoulder to shoulder. And we all have a common victory. It is impossible to take it away from us.
In the rear, a real feat of mercy was performed by a blacksmith from Tashkent Akhmed Shamakhmudov with his wife Bahri Akramova. The family adopted fifteen orphans from two to seven years old, taken from the western part of the USSR. They were Russians, as well as children from Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania and even Germany. Some did not remember who they were or where they came from. Ahmed raised and released everyone into life.
The continuity of generations
- Yes, there were people in our time, Not like the current tribe:
Heroes are not you!
M. Yu. Lermontov
One would think that this was a different breed of people. Everyone who was fortunate enough to communicate with those who passed the war note that these are special people - modest, unpretentious, pure in soul. True altruists.
However, at Yuri Burlan's training "System-vector psychology" we learn that all Russians in our time are carriers of the urethral mentality, in the properties of which altruism, mercy and justice, the priority of the general must be personal, self-sacrifice. And these properties have not gone anywhere. It only seems to us that there is little heroic left in our life. We forgot that we could be the same. The Western-style consumer society has hidden from us an understanding of what the spiritual essence of the Russian person is.
However, even now the world needs us such - merciful, ready to help, overcome any obstacles to save a person. If there were a hero, there would always be a feat for him.
Low bow to those who went through this terrible war. Not only because they won, saved the Russian people, but also because, remembering them, we awaken the best part of ourselves, cleanse ourselves mentally, returning the true guidelines in life. And again we save ourselves.